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Web26/10/ · Key Findings. California voters have now received their mail ballots, and the November 8 general election has entered its final stage. Amid rising prices and economic uncertainty—as well as deep partisan divisions over social and political issues—Californians are processing a great deal of information to help them choose state constitutional Web20/10/ · That means the impact could spread far beyond the agency’s payday lending rule. "The holding will call into question many other regulations that protect consumers with respect to credit cards, bank accounts, mortgage loans, debt collection, credit reports, and identity theft," tweeted Chris Peterson, a former enforcement attorney at the CFPB who Web19/10/ · Microsoft’s Activision Blizzard deal is key to the company’s mobile gaming efforts. Microsoft is quietly building a mobile Xbox store that will rely on Activision and King games WebAbout Our Coalition. Prop 30 is supported by a coalition including CalFire Firefighters, the American Lung Association, environmental organizations, electrical workers and businesses that want to improve California’s air quality by fighting and preventing wildfires and reducing air pollution from vehicles WebAgreement On Trade-Related Aspects Of Intellectual Property Rights. Members, Desiring to reduce distortions and impediments to international trade, and taking into account the need to promote effective and adequate protection of intellectual property rights, and to ensure that measures and procedures to enforce intellectual property rights do not themselves ... read more

And she also knows that France has real designs on annexing parts of northern Italy and will fight very dirty to win here. Macron tried to marginalize her on immigration, tugging on heart strings about denying migrants. She stood her ground, forced France to take the boats and when France tried to publicly shame her, she trotted out the CFA Franc and put that issue right to bed.

See this article from Reuters on rescinding the limits of cash use. Martin Armstrong has a quick overview of the budget where he pulls out some of the salient points from his perspective.

So, this is how she can play the game of not radically increasing spending. Sound familiar? Because this is what cost Liz Truss her job in the UK. She knew this day was coming the minute Mario Draghi walked away from his post as Prime Minister. The TPI was announced the next day. It puts the EU on their back foot in budget talks. Because this plan could actually work. What were they expecting, for Meloni to introduce miniBOTs and a new domestic currency like Salvini talked about in ?

Having exposed France to the world over the CFA Franc and understanding exactly how vulnerable the ECB and the EU Commission actually are in the Eurodollar markets, Meloni has pushed Italy into a good position to begin reversing the colonial extraction system of the EU itself.

The worry that Salvini and Berlusconi will betray her then drop precipitously. Remember, lurking in the background of all of this is Wall St. This is who I think is helping Meloni stand firm here. Wall St. understands this. And with a grateful Meloni in Rome realigning EU policy or forcing a breakup it also paves the way for a new cycle of energy investment now beyond desperately needed.

This is a fight for all the EU marbles folks, and Meloni, I believe knows this. They have no money, no domestic military to speak of… what is that promise actually worth?

No, France and Germany, the mercantilist powerhouses, are the ones that have to foot this Ukraine bill. The Fed is doing its job by forcing the euro down, bond yields up and taking options away from Christine Lagarde. Very cool weapon against drones. What is the next step not shown is the ability to direct the drone … being able to send it back to the operator means a drone with a bomb can be returned to the sender.. think about that.. Read this carefully as IRAN is doing what it should be doing becoming part of the SCO and at some point the BRICS.

This is another brick in wall of American lost hegemony in the region, as the Middle East is and has turned away. It will not be just one nation that makes the difference but the combined weight of all participants which causes hegemony to shift weakening the relevance of the West.

And this will impact western standards of living as a result as much as influence. At some point even Ukraine will become what it has historically been a border between east and west. By the world will look very different. Pepe Escobar posted on PressTV. Iran is already part of the Quad that really matters — alongside BRICS members Russia, China and India. Iran is deepening its strategic partnership with both China and Russia and increasing bilateral cooperation with India.

Iran is a key Chinese partner in the New Silk Roads, or Belt and Road Initiative BRI. It is set to clinch a free trade agreement with the Eurasia Economic Union EAEU and is a key node of the International North-South Transportation Corridor INSTC , alongside Russia and India.

All of the above configures the lightning-fast emergence of the Islamic Republic of Iran as a West Asia and Eurasia big power, with vast reach across the Global South. The playbook is always the same. Leader of the Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei actually came up with a concise definition. The latest color revolution overdrive overlaps with the manipulation of Kurds in both Syria and Iraq. From the imperial perspective, the proxy war in Syria, which is far from over, not only works as an additional front in the fight against Russia but also allows the instrumentalization of highly dependent Kurds against both Iran and Turkey.

Iran is currently being attacked according to a perverse variation of the scheme applied to Syria in What changed in mid-November is that armed gangs started to apply terrorist tactics in several towns close to the Iraqi border, and were even believed to be weaponized enough to take control of some of the towns. Tehran inevitably had to send IRGC troops to contain the situation and beef up border security. This military intervention was effective. But in a few latitudes, terror gangs continue to attack government infrastructure and even civilian property.

The key fact is that Tehran prefers not to repress these unruly demonstrations using deadly force. Tehran has issued a de facto ultimatum to Baghdad: get your act together with the Kurds, and make them understand the red lines. As it stands, Iran is massively employing Fateh ballistic missiles and Shahed and Shahed kamikaze drones against selected Kurdish terrorist bases in northern Iraq.

in Russia, with mediation by none other than Russian president Vladimir Putin. What would it take for Kurds to understand no state — be it Iran, Syria or Turkey — will offer them land for their own nation? Parameters could eventually change in case Iraqis in Baghdad finally manage to expel the US. Before we get there, the fact is Iran has already turned West Asian geopolitics upside down — via its smart cruise missiles, extremely effective kamikaze drones, electronic warfare and even state-of-the-art hypersonic missiles.

Tehran just needs to wait, exercise restraint, and observe how so much color revolution virtue signaling will eventually fizzle out. Finally, Mainstream media is getting it right: vaccine shots have a negative efficacy due to immunity blockage. Authored by Dr. Sean Lin and Mingjia Jacky Guan via The Epoch Times emphasis ours ,. Recently, various health agencies around the world have approved and are actively pushing for another COVID booster shot, meant to enhance the vaccine efficacy against a COVD infection.

However, many studies have found that the boosters do not make a significant difference in protection, especially in terms of protection against reinfection. In fact, the latest data shows vaccine efficacy against the coronavirus tends to even drop into the negatives after just a few months. It is a well known fact that COVID vaccine effectiveness wanes quickly as time goes on; this is confirmed by countless studies.

Even the protection two shots offers against hospitalization drops to about 40 percent after less than a year. In simple terms, it does more harm than good when the efficacy is negative. During the time prior to the pandemic, any vaccine with an efficacy less than 50 percent would be regarded as a poor product. When a product shows negative efficacy, it should be banned.

It has been around three years since the first COVID case was discovered in Wuhan, China. Since then, more than million cases of the virus have been recorded, translating into a little less than 1 in 10 people around the world already being infected with the virus.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC , it is recommended that everyone 6 months and older should receive a full vaccination and everyone 5 years and older should receive a booster shot.

At its crux, the vaccines were developed with the earlier strains of the coronavirus, meaning developers primarily used the original Wuhan strain in their testing. The Delta strain that came along was particularly infamous as it was known to have a high death rate, but vaccines fared quite well against it.

The results, however, went south as time went on and as the Omicron strain rolled out. Making its debut in South Africa, the Omicron strain started to dominate the world by the beginning of , which caused even more turmoil in terms of vaccine efficacy.

Data shows that the vaccine used to be around 90 percent effective for weeks on end after vaccination. After Omicron came along, infection prevention dropped to less than 50 percent after about a month after two shots and dived into the negatives four months later. The effects of a full vaccination against a second infection drops into the negatives within a few months, and it seems that the earlier one got the vaccination, the more likely it would lose its efficacy during the omicron waves.

The results from a September British Medical Journal study highlights again the fact that vaccine potency drops rapidly with time. It concluded that protection against severe symptoms drops well below half within a few weeks of administering the full two doses, or even after a third dose is administered. It also showed that in the immunocompromised, two doses never had an efficacy rate against hospitalization over 50 percent. T hings do look a little better for three doses, but not by much.

Another study published data on the efficacy of the third dose relative to primary doses and found that the mean efficacy of three doses of the Moderna vaccine against the Omicron variants are, in fact, below 0.

They found that people who took the fourth dose sometimes had higher, but mostly lower, antibody concentrations in the body compared with those who took the third dose. Also, the hazard ratio calculated by researchers for the third and fourth vaccine doses provide us with mixed results. Sometimes, it seems like a good option to stick with the third dose, as the hazard ratio actually rises for taking the second booster compared with the first one.

One possible reason vaccine data is going downhill after Omicron appeared is that the new variant had a lot of changes in its spike protein composition. One can understand it as if the variants have new toys to play with the old security guards.

Even if the vaccination groups during clinical trials were carefully chosen to have similar comorbid medical conditions as the control or unvaccinated group, there are still many other unknown factors that would dictate the outcome of the disease progression. This is not just a vaccine failure or breakthrough infection issue, but a good time to halt COVID vaccines for good.

Humans will never win in this cat-and-mouse game against nature. As time goes on, the likelihood of reinfection is quite high. Studies do show that in reinfected people the chances of death, hospitalization, and some form of sequela is much higher in those infected for the first time.

It also seems like a logical conclusion for the CDC to recommend that everyone gets vaccinated. They all have just about the same values for cardiovascular, thrombotic, renal, or pulmonary sequelae post infection, or chances of getting a tough COVID infection in the first place. Data also shows that previously infected and unvaccinated children were better at preventing a second infection compared with children who were in the same age category but who were vaccinated.

What this essentially means is that the vaccines cannot keep up with the constantly emerging variants and that a waning efficacy was frankly inevitable. The only question left is, what is the driving force behind the Omicron variants, or SARS-CoV-2 variants on a broad scale?

What accounts for variants emerging at the same time around the world? Over the past 3 years, scientists have applied the theory of evolution to describe and explain the trajectory of SARS-CoV Delta was the deadly variant and now Omicron is the road runner. In theory, the virus developed these strains to best adapt to the objective environment, yet scientists are still looking for more answers.

If the only factor that determines which variant to become dominant or not was its fitness, i. Why does it appear as if there is a coordinating force behind the virus such that one strain was able to uniformly retire the previous one? In order to answer all these questions, I believe that there needs to be a more holistic evaluation of the current pandemic. With vaccination rates for the new Bivalent COVID shots reportedly declining, the U. The U. Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System VAERS has recorded almost 10, adverse events including 80 deaths following these new shots that were just recently authorized, and that the Government is trying to inject into more people.

The total amount of recorded adverse events from all EUA COVID vaccines since they were first authorized in December of , is now 1,,, with 32, deaths. Are parents aware of this before deciding to get these shots for their children?

Here are some examples from the U. Read More.. DR PAUL ALEXANDER. We argue that without any government intervention, with nothing, had our governments done nothing, just strongly protect the elderly and vulnerable and allow the rest of the low-risk healthy population to live unfettered normal lives taking reasonable precautions no lockdowns, no school closures, nothing , that COVID is and was just a regular influenza-like illness.

Other malevolent players like Pfizer and Moderna had hands in this too, using this fraud pandemic, but the real loser was POTUS Trump. And we the people for the ILI did take some people, but we lost most lives due to lockdown lunacy and above all, lost our liberties and freedoms enroute. It was never this low-risk pathogen or whatever it was, it was what they did, how they responded or had planned to respond, that killed us.

ITALIAN 10 YR BOND YIELD 3. Your closing 10 yr US bond yield UP 4 IN basis points from FRI DAY at 3. Your closing bourses for Europe and the Dow along with the USA dollar index closing and interest rates MON D AY : PM. Amazon CEO Andy Jassy was speaking live during the DealBook Summit and let some uncomfortable truths loose:. He said officials are concerned that workers may soon start demanding higher wages, which could have a more troubling impact on inflation.

in New York, while the Dow Industrial Average added 1. The VIX index of volatility was set to drop below There is a reasonably strong chance the Fed extends 50 basis point hikes or 25 basis point hikes. Notably, he appears less confident than some in the November FOMC minutes that wage growth has cooled.

He hinted labor supply is unlikely grow anytime soon, and the Fed will have to bring down demand or raise the unemployment rate to slow wage growth. This speech confirms our view that Powell is on the hawkish end of the FOMC spectrum — possibly more hawkish than the median participant. Communicating this shift may be confusing to some market participants when the time comes. Service-providing jobs rose k while goods-producing jobs fell 86k with manufacturing job losses soaring… but fear not, we added k bartenders and waiters.

EMPLOYEES: DJ As long as the US hires 5 million waiters and bartenders in November, all is well— zerohedge zerohedge November 29, In addition, companies are no longer in hyper-replacement mode.

Fewer people are quitting and the post-pandemic recovery is stabilizing. Pay growth remained elevated even as it continued a modest but broad-based deceleration. Job changers notched their fifth straight slowdown and the smallest increase in pay since January. Pay growth for job stayers edged down, too, led by leisure and hospitality, which had a rapid run-up in but has been falling since March. According to the BLS, job openings decreased in state and local government, excluding education , ; nondurable goods manufacturing , ; and federal government , The September update also means that there were 1.

That said, this number has a ways to drop to revert to its precovid levels around around 1. While job openings reversed the recent bounce, hiring continued to slide and in September the BLS reported that total hires dipped to 6. So will the combination of a clearly disastrous ADP print coupled with another ugly JOLTS report be enough to convince Powell to ease off the break?

For the answer, join us at pm when Powell speaks at Brookings and either sends stocks plunging… or soaring. Imports turned down. Digging deeper we find that the third-quarter increase in real GDP reflected increases in exports, consumer spending, business investment, and government spending that were partly offset by decreases in housing investment and inventory investment.

Imports, which are a subtraction in the calculation of GDP, decreased. In terms of the revisions from the first to the second estimate, the update primarily reflects upward revisions to consumer spending and business investment that were partly offset by a downward revision to inventory investment.

Quantifying the Q3 GDP revision changes we get the following :. In other word, the entire GDP boost 2. Finally, looking at the all-important PCE components, the GDP Price index came in at 4. Gross domestic purchases prices, the prices of goods and services purchased by U.

residents, increased 4. Excluding food and energy, prices increased 5. Personal consumption expenditure PCE prices increased 4. Finally, we should remind readers that this data is largely meaningless as it looks at the state of the economy during the summer, while what matters for the Fed is the here and now, and how fast the US slides into recession; which means what Powell says at pm today will be even more important.

After plunging by the most since COVID lockdowns in September, analysts expected US pending home sales to tumble once again in October and they did, dropping 4. Only the Midwest squeaked out a gain. Absent the COVID collapse, this is the weakest level for the Pending Home Sales Index since the nadir in June ….

Existing home sales tumbled in October while new home sales rose cancellations are not counted , and so the pending home sales print confirms the weakness that Jay Powell apparently is looking for in the US housing market. In a massive downside surprise, the Chicago PMI survey just printed This was below the lowest estimate of 25 economists surveyed. In 55 years, this level of Chicago PMI has never not failed to coincide with a recession.

Under pressure from President Biden, Speaker Pelosi said that House lawmakers will take up legislation on Wednesday to stop a nationwide strike by railroad workers by imposing a proposed contract that members at four railroad unions had rejected, saying Congress needs to intervene to prevent devastating job losses.

Both sides in the negotiations had agreed to a cooling-off period until Dec. As The Wall Street Journal reports , under the Railway Labor Act, Congress can make both sides accept an agreement that their members have voted down. As you would expect some Democrats are hesitant to bite the hand that feeds them and tell labor unions what to do; and some union leaders have already expressed their ire at the intervention. Authored by Jack Phillips via The Epoch Times emphasis ours ,.

NBC News correspondent Miguel Almaguer has not appeared on the air since a Nov. Reports earlier this month indicated that he was suspended by the network after the video report was retracted, and he has not been seen on NBC since then. Meanwhile, NBC News or its parent company has not issued any statements on why Almaguer is gone, if he was suspended, and for how long.

Almaguer also has not publicly commented on the matter. NBC News has not returned a request for comment on Monday on if or when Almaguer will return. The Epoch Times also contacted Almaguer for comment. In his retracted video report, Almaguer said that Paul Pelosi—the husband of House Speaker Nancy Pelosi D-Calif. However, he did not try to escape or alert police to an emergency, and he instead walked to the police and back toward the alleged attacker, David DePape.

When his report was shared en masse on Nov. Almaguer also has not posted on Twitter, where he is normally active, since Nov. Last week, Almaguer posted photos of himself in Barcelona, Spain, on Instagram, suggesting he spent the Thanksgiving holiday there. Almaguer cited unnamed sources for the claims. DePape has, in the meantime, pleaded not guilty to federal and state charges.

Paul Pelosi told a dispatcher that he was sleeping when a man he had never seen before entered his bedroom looking for Nancy Pelosi, who was in Washington, D. Officers later found a broken glass door to the back porch. They recovered zip ties, a roll of tape, white rope, a second hammer, and a pair of rubber and cloth gloves, according to court documents.

The Luzerne County Board of Elections split 2—2 to certify the results, while one member abstained from voting. Transactions in this state are aborted.

The database recovery module can select one of the two operations after a transaction aborts:. If there isn't any roll-back or the transaction comes from the committed state , then the system is consistent and ready for a new transaction and the old transaction is terminated.

A distributed transaction is a set of operations on data that is performed across two or more databases. It is typically coordinated across separate nodes connected by a network, but may also span multiple databases on a single server. Unlike an ACID transaction on a single database, a distributed transaction involves altering data on multiple databases.

Consequently, distributed transaction processing is more complicated, because the database must coordinate the committing or rollback of the changes in a transaction as a self-contained unit. In other words, all the nodes must commit, or all must abort and the entire transaction rolls back.

This is why we need distributed transactions. The two-phase commit 2PC protocol is a distributed algorithm that coordinates all the processes that participate in a distributed transaction on whether to commit or abort roll back the transaction. This protocol achieves its goal even in many cases of temporary system failure and is thus widely used. However, it is not resilient to all possible failure configurations, and in rare cases, manual intervention is needed to remedy an outcome.

This protocol requires a coordinator node, which basically coordinates and oversees the transaction across different nodes. The coordinator tries to establish the consensus among a set of processes in two phases, hence the name. The prepare phase involves the coordinator node collecting consensus from each of the participant nodes. The transaction will be aborted unless each of the nodes responds that they're prepared.

If all participants respond to the coordinator that they are prepared , then the coordinator asks all the nodes to commit the transaction. If a failure occurs, the transaction will be rolled back. Three-phase commit 3PC is an extension of the two-phase commit where the commit phase is split into two phases.

This helps with the blocking problem that occurs in the two-phase commit protocol. Coordinator issues the pre-commit message and all the participating nodes must acknowledge it. If a participant fails to receive this message in time, then the transaction is aborted. A saga is a sequence of local transactions. Each local transaction updates the database and publishes a message or event to trigger the next local transaction in the saga.

If a local transaction fails because it violates a business rule then the saga executes a series of compensating transactions that undo the changes that were made by the preceding local transactions. Data partitioning is a technique to break up a database into many smaller parts. It is the process of splitting up a database or a table across multiple machines to improve the manageability, performance, and availability of a database.

There are many different ways one could use to decide how to break up an application database into multiple smaller DBs. Below are two of the most popular methods used by various large-scale applications:. In this strategy, we split the table data horizontally based on the range of values defined by the partition key. It is also referred to as database sharding. In vertical partitioning, we partition the data vertically based on columns.

We divide tables into relatively smaller tables with few elements, and each part is present in a separate partition. Sharding is a database architecture pattern related to horizontal partitioning , which is the practice of separating one table's rows into multiple different tables, known as partitions or shards. Each partition has the same schema and columns, but also a subset of the shared data.

Likewise, the data held in each is unique and independent of the data held in other partitions. The justification for data sharding is that, after a certain point, it is cheaper and more feasible to scale horizontally by adding more machines than to scale it vertically by adding powerful servers. Sharding can be implemented at both application or the database level.

There are a large number of criteria available for data partitioning. Some most commonly used criteria are:. This strategy divides the rows into different partitions based on a hashing algorithm rather than grouping database rows based on continuous indexes. In list-based partitioning, each partition is defined and selected based on the list of values on a column rather than a set of contiguous ranges of values. Range partitioning maps data to various partitions based on ranges of values of the partitioning key.

In other words, we partition the table in such a way that each partition contains rows within a given range defined by the partition key. Ranges should be contiguous but not overlapping, where each range specifies a non-inclusive lower and upper bound for a partition. Any partitioning key values equal to or higher than the upper bound of the range are added to the next partition. As the name suggests, composite partitioning partitions the data based on two or more partitioning techniques.

Here we first partition the data using one technique, and then each partition is further subdivided into sub-partitions using the same or some other method. In traditional hashing-based distribution methods, we use a hash function to hash our partition keys i.

request ID or IP. Then if we use the modulo against the total number of nodes server or databases. This will give us the node where we want to route our request. The problem with this is if we add or remove a node, it will cause N to change, meaning our mapping strategy will break as the same requests will now map to a different server. As a consequence, the majority of requests will need to be redistributed which is very inefficient. We want to uniformly distribute requests among different nodes such that we should be able to add or remove nodes with minimal effort.

Hence, we need a distribution scheme that does not depend directly on the number of nodes or servers , so that, when adding or removing nodes, the number of keys that need to be relocated is minimized. Consistent hashing solves this horizontal scalability problem by ensuring that every time we scale up or down, we do not have to re-arrange all the keys or touch all the servers. Consistent Hashing is a distributed hashing scheme that operates independently of the number of nodes in a distributed hash table by assigning them a position on an abstract circle, or hash ring.

This allows servers and objects to scale without affecting the overall system. The output of the hash function is a range let's say m-1 which we can represent on our hash ring. We hash the requests and distribute them on the ring depending on what the output was.

Similarly, we also hash the node and distribute them on the same ring as well. Now, when the request comes in we can simply route it to the closest node in a clockwise can be counterclockwise as well manner. This means that if a new node is added or removed, we can use the nearest node and only a fraction of the requests need to be re-routed. In theory, consistent hashing should distribute the load evenly however it doesn't happen in practice. Usually, the load distribution is uneven and one server may end up handling the majority of the request becoming a hotspot , essentially a bottleneck for the system.

We can fix this by adding extra nodes but that can be expensive. In order to ensure a more evenly distributed load, we can introduce the idea of a virtual node, sometimes also referred to as a VNode.

Instead of assigning a single position to a node, the hash range is divided into multiple smaller ranges, and each physical node is assigned several of these smaller ranges.

Each of these subranges is considered a VNode. Hence, virtual nodes are basically existing physical nodes mapped multiple times across the hash ring to minimize changes to a node's assigned range.

As VNodes help spread the load more evenly across the physical nodes on the cluster by diving the hash ranges into smaller subranges, this speeds up the re-balancing process after adding or removing nodes.

This also helps us reduce the probability of hotspots. To ensure high availability and durability, consistent hashing replicates each data item on multiple N nodes in the system where the value N is equivalent to the replication factor. The replication factor is the number of nodes that will receive the copy of the same data. In eventually consistent systems, this is done asynchronously.

Federation or functional partitioning splits up databases by function. The federation architecture makes several distinct physical databases appear as one logical database to end-users. All of the components in a federation are tied together by one or more federal schemas that express the commonality of data throughout the federation.

These federated schemas are used to specify the information that can be shared by the federation components and to provide a common basis for communication among them. Federation also provides a cohesive, unified view of data derived from multiple sources. The data sources for federated systems can include databases and various other forms of structured and unstructured data. N-tier architecture divides an application into logical layers and physical tiers.

Layers are a way to separate responsibilities and manage dependencies. Each layer has a specific responsibility. A higher layer can use services in a lower layer, but not the other way around. Tiers are physically separated, running on separate machines. A tier can call to another tier directly, or use asynchronous messaging.

Although each layer might be hosted in its own tier, that's not required. Several layers might be hosted on the same tier. Physically separating the tiers improves scalability and resiliency and adds latency from the additional network communication. A closed-layer architecture limits the dependencies between layers. However, it might create unnecessary network traffic, if one layer simply passes requests along to the next layer.

In this architecture, the presentation layer runs on the client and communicates with a data store. There is no business logic layer or immediate layer between client and server. It is the simplest one as it is equivalent to running the application on a personal computer.

All of the required components for an application to run are on a single application or server. A message broker is a software that enables applications, systems, and services to communicate with each other and exchange information. The message broker does this by translating messages between formal messaging protocols.

This allows interdependent services to "talk" with one another directly, even if they were written in different languages or implemented on different platforms.

Message brokers can validate, store, route, and deliver messages to the appropriate destinations. They serve as intermediaries between other applications, allowing senders to issue messages without knowing where the receivers are, whether or not they are active, or how many of them there are. This facilitates the decoupling of processes and services within systems. Designed for use with high volumes of messages, event streaming platforms are readily scalable.

They're capable of ordering streams of records into categories called topics and storing them for a predetermined amount of time.

Unlike message brokers, however, event streaming platforms cannot guarantee message delivery or track which consumers have received the messages. Event streaming platforms offer more scalability than message brokers but fewer features that ensure fault tolerance like message resending, as well as more limited message routing and queueing capabilities.

Enterprise Service Bus ESB infrastructure is complex and can be challenging to integrate and expensive to maintain. It's difficult to troubleshoot them when problems occur in production environments, they're not easy to scale, and updating is tedious.

Whereas message brokers are a "lightweight" alternative to ESBs that provide similar functionality, a mechanism for inter-service communication, at a lower cost. They're well-suited for use in the microservices architectures that have become more prevalent as ESBs have fallen out of favor. A message queue is a form of service-to-service communication that facilitates asynchronous communication. It asynchronously receives messages from producers and sends them to consumers.

Queues are used to effectively manage requests in large-scale distributed systems. In small systems with minimal processing loads and small databases, writes can be predictably fast. However, in more complex and large systems writes can take an almost non-deterministic amount of time.

Messages are stored in the queue until they are processed and deleted. Each message is processed only once by a single consumer. Here's how it works:. Most message queues provide both push and pull options for retrieving messages. Pull means continuously querying the queue for new messages. Push means that a consumer is notified when a message is available.

We can also use long-polling to allow pulls to wait a specified amount of time for new messages to arrive. In these queues, the oldest or first entry, sometimes called the "head" of the queue, is processed first. Many message queues support setting a specific delivery time for a message. If we need to have a common delay for all messages, we can set up a delay queue.

Message queues may store multiple copies of messages for redundancy and high availability, and resend messages in the event of communication failures or errors to ensure they are delivered at least once.

When duplicates can't be tolerated, FIFO first-in-first-out message queues will make sure that each message is delivered exactly once and only once by filtering out duplicates automatically. A dead-letter queue is a queue to which other queues can send messages that can't be processed successfully. This makes it easy to set them aside for further inspection without blocking the queue processing or spending CPU cycles on a message that might never be consumed successfully.

Most message queues provide best-effort ordering which ensures that messages are generally delivered in the same order as they're sent and that a message is delivered at least once. Poison pills are special messages that can be received, but not processed.

Message queues will authenticate applications that try to access the queue, this allows us to encrypt messages over the network as well as in the queue itself. Tasks queues receive tasks and their related data, run them, then deliver their results. They can support scheduling and can be used to run computationally-intensive jobs in the background. If queues start to grow significantly, the queue size can become larger than memory, resulting in cache misses, disk reads, and even slower performance.

Backpressure can help by limiting the queue size, thereby maintaining a high throughput rate and good response times for jobs already in the queue. Once the queue fills up, clients get a server busy or HTTP status code to try again later.

Clients can retry the request at a later time, perhaps with exponential backoff strategy. Similar to a message queue, publish-subscribe is also a form of service-to-service communication that facilitates asynchronous communication. The subscribers to the message topic often perform different functions, and can each do something different with the message in parallel.

The publisher doesn't need to know who is using the information that it is broadcasting, and the subscribers don't need to know where the message comes from. This style of messaging is a bit different than message queues, where the component that sends the message often knows the destination it is sending to. Unlike message queues, which batch messages until they are retrieved, message topics transfer messages with little or no queuing and push them out immediately to all subscribers.

Subscribers are notified when a message is available. In the Publish-Subscribe model, topics can typically connect to multiple types of endpoints, such as message queues, serverless functions, HTTP servers, etc.

This scenario happens when a message is sent to a topic and then replicated and pushed to multiple endpoints. Fanout provides asynchronous event notifications which in turn allows for parallel processing. This feature empowers the subscriber to create a message filtering policy so that it will only get the notifications it is interested in, as opposed to receiving every single message posted to the topic.

Message topics authenticate applications that try to publish content, this allows us to use encrypted endpoints and encrypt messages in transit over the network. An Enterprise Service Bus ESB is an architectural pattern whereby a centralized software component performs integrations between applications.

It performs transformations of data models, handles connectivity, performs message routing, converts communication protocols, and potentially manages the composition of multiple requests.

The ESB can make these integrations and transformations available as a service interface for reuse by new applications. In theory, a centralized ESB offers the potential to standardize and dramatically simplify communication, messaging, and integration between services across the enterprise. Here are some advantages of using an ESB:. While ESBs were deployed successfully in many organizations, in many other organizations the ESB came to be seen as a bottleneck.

Here are some disadvantages of using an ESB:. A monolith is a self-contained and independent application. It is built as a single unit and is responsible for not just a particular task, but can perform every step needed to satisfy a business need.

A Modular Monolith is an approach where we build and deploy a single application that's the Monolith part , but we build it in a way that breaks up the code into independent modules for each of the features needed in our application. This approach reduces the dependencies of a module in such as way that we can enhance or change a module without affecting other modules.

When done right, this can be really beneficial in the long term as it reduces the complexity that comes with maintaining a monolith as the system grows. A microservices architecture consists of a collection of small, autonomous services where each service is self-contained and should implement a single business capability within a bounded context.

A bounded context is a natural division of business logic that provides an explicit boundary within which a domain model exists. Each service has a separate codebase, which can be managed by a small development team. Services can be deployed independently and a team can update an existing service without rebuilding and redeploying the entire application.

Services are responsible for persisting their own data or external state database per service. This differs from the traditional model, where a separate data layer handles data persistence.

Distributed Monolith is a system that resembles the microservices architecture but is tightly coupled within itself like a monolithic application.

Adopting microservices architecture comes with a lot of advantages. But while making one, there are good chances that we might end up with a distributed monolith. One of the primary reasons to build an application using microservices architecture is to have scalability. Therefore, microservices should have loosely coupled services which enable every service to be independent. The distributed monolith architecture takes this away and causes most components to depend on one another, increasing design complexity.

You might have seen Service-oriented architecture SOA mentioned around the internet, sometimes even interchangeably with microservices, but they are different from each other and the main distinction between the two approaches comes down to scope. Service-oriented architecture SOA defines a way to make software components reusable via service interfaces. These interfaces utilize common communication standards and focus on maximizing application service reusability whereas microservices are built as a collection of various smallest independent service units focused on team autonomy and decoupling.

So, you might be wondering, monoliths seem like a bad idea to begin with, why would anyone use that? Well, it depends. While each approach has its own advantages and disadvantages, it is advised to start with a monolith when building a new system. It is important to understand, that microservices are not a silver bullet, instead, they solve an organizational problem. Microservices architecture is about your organizational priorities and team as much as it's about technology.

Before making the decision to move to microservices architecture, you need to ask yourself questions like:. If your application does not require to be broken down into microservices, you don't need this.

There is no absolute necessity that all applications should be broken down into microservices. We frequently draw inspiration from companies such as Netflix and their use of microservices, but we overlook the fact that we are not Netflix. They went through a lot of iterations and models before they had a market-ready solution, and this architecture became acceptable for them when they identified and solved the problem they were trying to tackle.

That's why it's essential to understand in-depth if your business actually needs microservices. What I'm trying to say is microservices are solutions to complex concerns and if your business doesn't have complex issues, you don't need them.

Event-Driven Architecture EDA is about using events as a way to communicate within a system. Generally, leveraging a message broker to publish and consume events asynchronously. The publisher is unaware of who is consuming an event and the consumers are unaware of each other.

Event-Driven Architecture is simply a way of achieving loose coupling between services within a system. An event is a data point that represents state changes in a system. It doesn't specify what should happen and how the change should modify the system, it only notifies the system of a particular state change. When a user makes an action, they trigger an event. There are several ways to implement the event-driven architecture, and which method we use depends on the use case but here are some common examples:.

Instead of storing just the current state of the data in a domain, use an append-only store to record the full series of actions taken on that data. The store acts as the system of record and can be used to materialize the domain objects. This can simplify tasks in complex domains, by avoiding the need to synchronize the data model and the business domain, while improving performance, scalability, and responsiveness. It can also provide consistency for transactional data, and maintain full audit trails and history that can enable compensating actions.

Event sourcing is seemingly constantly being confused with Event-driven Architecture EDA. Event-driven architecture is about using events to communicate between service boundaries. Generally, leveraging a message broker to publish and consume events asynchronously within other boundaries. Whereas, event sourcing is about using events as a state, which is a different approach to storing data.

Rather than storing the current state, we're instead going to be storing events. Also, event sourcing is one of the several patterns to implement an event-driven architecture. Command Query Responsibility Segregation CQRS is an architectural pattern that divides a system's actions into commands and queries. It was first described by Greg Young. In CQRS, a command is an instruction, a directive to perform a specific task.

It is an intention to change something and doesn't return a value, only an indication of success or failure. And, a query is a request for information that doesn't change the system's state or cause any side effects. The core principle of CQRS is the separation of commands and queries. They perform fundamentally different roles within a system, and separating them means that each can be optimized as needed, which distributed systems can really benefit from.

The CQRS pattern is often used along with the Event Sourcing pattern. CQRS-based systems use separate read and write data models, each tailored to relevant tasks and often located in physically separate stores. When used with the Event Sourcing pattern, the store of events is the write model and is the official source of information.

The read model of a CQRS-based system provides materialized views of the data, typically as highly denormalized views. The API Gateway is an API management tool that sits between a client and a collection of backend services. It is a single entry point into a system that encapsulates the internal system architecture and provides an API that is tailored to each client.

It also has other responsibilities such as authentication, monitoring, load balancing, caching, throttling, logging, etc. The granularity of APIs provided by microservices is often different than what a client needs. Microservices typically provide fine-grained APIs, which means that clients need to interact with multiple services.

Hence, an API gateway can provide a single entry point for all clients with some additional features and better management. In the Backend For Frontend BFF pattern, we create separate backend services to be consumed by specific frontend applications or interfaces. This pattern is useful when we want to avoid customizing a single backend for multiple interfaces. This pattern was first described by Sam Newman.

Also, sometimes the output of data returned by the microservices to the front end is not in the exact format or filtered as needed by the front end. To solve this issue, the frontend should have some logic to reformat the data, and therefore, we can use BFF to shift some of this logic to the intermediate layer. The primary function of the backend for the frontend pattern is to get the required data from the appropriate service, format the data, and sent it to the frontend.

GraphQL performs really well as a backend for frontend BFF. A good API design is always a crucial part of any system. But it is also important to pick the right API technology. So, in this tutorial, we will briefly discuss different API technologies such as REST, GraphQL, and gRPC.

API stands for Application Programming Interface. It is a set of definitions and protocols for building and integrating application software. It's sometimes referred to as a contract between an information provider and an information user establishing the content required from the producer and the content required by the consumer. In other words, if you want to interact with a computer or system to retrieve information or perform a function, an API helps you communicate what you want to that system so it can understand and complete the request.

A REST API also known as RESTful API is an application programming interface that conforms to the constraints of REST architectural style and allows for interaction with RESTful web services. REST stands for Representational State Transfer and it was first introduced by Roy Fielding in the year In order for an API to be considered RESTful , it has to conform to these architectural constraints:.

HTTP defines a set of request methods to indicate the desired action to be performed for a given resource. Although they can also be nouns, these request methods are sometimes referred to as HTTP verbs. Each of them implements a different semantic, but some common features are shared by a group of them. HTTP response status codes indicate whether a specific HTTP request has been successfully completed. REST APIs are pretty much used universally and are the default standard for designing APIs.

Overall REST APIs are quite flexible and can fit almost all scenarios. Here's an example usage of a REST API that operates on a users resource. There is so much more to learn when it comes to REST APIs, I will highly recommend looking into Hypermedia as the Engine of Application State HATEOAS. GraphQL is a query language and server-side runtime for APIs that prioritizes giving clients exactly the data they request and no more. It was developed by Facebook and later open-sourced in GraphQL is designed to make APIs fast, flexible, and developer-friendly.

Additionally, GraphQL gives API maintainers the flexibility to add or deprecate fields without impacting existing queries. Developers can build APIs with whatever methods they prefer, and the GraphQL specification will ensure they function in predictable ways to clients. A GraphQL schema describes the functionality clients can utilize once they connect to the GraphQL server.

A query is a request made by the client. It can consist of fields and arguments for the query. The operation type of a query can also be a mutation which provides a way to modify server-side data. Resolver is a collection of functions that generate responses for a GraphQL query. In simple terms, a resolver acts as a GraphQL query handler. Here's a GraphQL schema that defines a User type and a Query type.

Using the above schema, the client can request the required fields easily without having to fetch the entire resource or guess what the API might return. Learn more about GraphQL at graphql. gRPC is a modern open-source high-performance Remote Procedure Call RPC framework that can run in any environment. It can efficiently connect services in and across data centers with pluggable support for load balancing, tracing, health checking, authentication and much more. Protocol buffers provide a language and platform-neutral extensible mechanism for serializing structured data in a forward and backward-compatible way.

It's like JSON, except it's smaller and faster, and it generates native language bindings. Like many RPC systems, gRPC is based on the idea of defining a service and specifying the methods that can be called remotely with their parameters and return types.

gRPC uses protocol buffers as the Interface Definition Language IDL for describing both the service interface and the structure of the payload messages. proto file. Using this definition, we can easily code generate the HelloService service in the programming language of our choice.

Now that we know how these API designing techniques work, let's compare them based on the following parameters:. Well, the answer is none of them. There is no silver bullet as each of these technologies has its own advantages and disadvantages. Users only care about using our APIs in a consistent way, so make sure to focus on your domain and requirements when designing your API.

Web applications were initially developed around a client-server model, where the web client is always the initiator of transactions like requesting data from the server. Thus, there was no mechanism for the server to independently send, or push, data to the client without the client first making a request. Let's discuss some approaches to overcome this problem. HTTP Long polling is a technique used to push information to a client as soon as possible from the server.

As a result, the server does not have to wait for the client to send a request. In Long polling, the server does not close the connection once it receives a request from the client.

Instead, the server responds only if any new message is available or a timeout threshold is reached. Once the client receives a response, it immediately sends a new request to the server to have a new pending connection to send data to the client, and the operation is repeated. With this approach, the server emulates a real-time server push feature.

A major downside of long polling is that it is usually not scalable. Below are some of the other reasons:. WebSocket provides full-duplex communication channels over a single TCP connection. It is a persistent connection between a client and a server that both parties can use to start sending data at any time. The client establishes a WebSocket connection through a process known as the WebSocket handshake. If the process succeeds, then the server and client can exchange data in both directions at any time.

The WebSocket protocol enables the communication between a client and a server with lower overheads, facilitating real-time data transfer from and to the server.

This is made possible by providing a standardized way for the server to send content to the client without being asked and allowing for messages to be passed back and forth while keeping the connection open. Server-Sent Events SSE is a way of establishing long-term communication between client and server that enables the server to proactively push data to the client. It is unidirectional, meaning once the client sends the request it can only receive the responses without the ability to send new requests over the same connection.

Geohashing is a geocoding method used to encode geographic coordinates such as latitude and longitude into short alphanumeric strings. It was created by Gustavo Niemeyer in For example, San Francisco with coordinates Geohash is a hierarchical spatial index that uses Base alphabet encoding, the first character in a geohash identifies the initial location as one of the 32 cells.

This cell will also contain 32 cells. This means that to represent a point, the world is recursively divided into smaller and smaller cells with each additional bit until the desired precision is attained. The precision factor also determines the size of the cell. Geohashing guarantees that points are spatially closer if their Geohashes share a longer prefix which means the more characters in the string, the more precise the location.

For example, geohashes 9q8yy9mf and 9q8yy9vx are spatially closer as they share the prefix 9q8yy9. Geohashing can also be used to provide a degree of anonymity as we don't need to expose the exact location of the user because depending on the length of the geohash we just know they are somewhere within an area. A quadtree is a tree data structure in which each internal node has exactly four children.

They are often used to partition a two-dimensional space by recursively subdividing it into four quadrants or regions. Each child or leaf node stores spatial information.

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Please check back soon for future events, and sign up to receive invitations to our events and briefings. December 1, Speaker Series on California's Future — Virtual Event.

November 30, Virtual Event. November 18, Annual Water Conference — In-Person and Online. We believe in the power of good information to build a brighter future for California. Help support our mission. Mark Baldassare , Dean Bonner , Rachel Lawler , and Deja Thomas. Supported with funding from the Arjay and Frances F. Miller Foundation and the James Irvine Foundation.

California voters have now received their mail ballots, and the November 8 general election has entered its final stage. Amid rising prices and economic uncertainty—as well as deep partisan divisions over social and political issues—Californians are processing a great deal of information to help them choose state constitutional officers and state legislators and to make policy decisions about state propositions.

The midterm election also features a closely divided Congress, with the likelihood that a few races in California may determine which party controls the US House. These are among the key findings of a statewide survey on state and national issues conducted from October 14 to 23 by the Public Policy Institute of California:. Today, there is a wide partisan divide: seven in ten Democrats are optimistic about the direction of the state, while 91 percent of Republicans and 59 percent of independents are pessimistic.

Californians are much more pessimistic about the direction of the country than they are about the direction of the state.

Majorities across all demographic groups and partisan groups, as well as across regions, are pessimistic about the direction of the United States. A wide partisan divide exists: most Democrats and independents say their financial situation is about the same as a year ago, while solid majorities of Republicans say they are worse off. Regionally, about half in the San Francisco Bay Area and Los Angeles say they are about the same, while half in the Central Valley say they are worse off; residents elsewhere are divided between being worse off and the same.

The shares saying they are worse off decline as educational attainment increases. Strong majorities across partisan groups feel negatively, but Republicans and independents are much more likely than Democrats to say the economy is in poor shape. Today, majorities across partisan, demographic, and regional groups say they are following news about the gubernatorial election either very or fairly closely. In the upcoming November 8 election, there will be seven state propositions for voters.

Due to time constraints, our survey only asked about three ballot measures: Propositions 26, 27, and For each, we read the proposition number, ballot, and ballot label. Two of the state ballot measures were also included in the September survey Propositions 27 and 30 , while Proposition 26 was not. This measure would allow in-person sports betting at racetracks and tribal casinos, requiring that racetracks and casinos offering sports betting make certain payments to the state to support state regulatory costs.

It also allows roulette and dice games at tribal casinos and adds a new way to enforce certain state gambling laws. Fewer than half of likely voters say the outcome of each of these state propositions is very important to them. Today, 21 percent of likely voters say the outcome of Prop 26 is very important, 31 percent say the outcome of Prop 27 is very important, and 42 percent say the outcome of Prop 30 is very important.

Today, when it comes to the importance of the outcome of Prop 26, one in four or fewer across partisan groups say it is very important to them. About one in three across partisan groups say the outcome of Prop 27 is very important to them. Fewer than half across partisan groups say the outcome of Prop 30 is very important to them.

When asked how they would vote if the election for the US House of Representatives were held today, 56 percent of likely voters say they would vote for or lean toward the Democratic candidate, while 39 percent would vote for or lean toward the Republican candidate.

Democratic candidates are preferred by a point margin in Democratic-held districts, while Republican candidates are preferred by a point margin in Republican-held districts. Abortion is another prominent issue in this election. When asked about the importance of abortion rights, 61 percent of likely voters say the issue is very important in determining their vote for Congress and another 20 percent say it is somewhat important; just 17 percent say it is not too or not at all important.

With the controlling party in Congress hanging in the balance, 51 percent of likely voters say they are extremely or very enthusiastic about voting for Congress this year; another 29 percent are somewhat enthusiastic while 19 percent are either not too or not at all enthusiastic. Today, Democrats and Republicans have about equal levels of enthusiasm, while independents are much less likely to be extremely or very enthusiastic. As Californians prepare to vote in the upcoming midterm election, fewer than half of adults and likely voters are satisfied with the way democracy is working in the United States—and few are very satisfied.

Satisfaction was higher in our February survey when 53 percent of adults and 48 percent of likely voters were satisfied with democracy in America. Today, half of Democrats and about four in ten independents are satisfied, compared to about one in five Republicans. Notably, four in ten Republicans are not at all satisfied. In addition to the lack of satisfaction with the way democracy is working, Californians are divided about whether Americans of different political positions can still come together and work out their differences.

Forty-nine percent are optimistic, while 46 percent are pessimistic. Today, in a rare moment of bipartisan agreement, about four in ten Democrats, Republicans, and independents are optimistic that Americans of different political views will be able to come together.

Notably, in , half or more across parties, regions, and demographic groups were optimistic. Today, about eight in ten Democrats—compared to about half of independents and about one in ten Republicans—approve of Governor Newsom.

Across demographic groups, about half or more approve of how Governor Newsom is handling his job. Approval of Congress among adults has been below 40 percent for all of after seeing a brief run above 40 percent for all of Democrats are far more likely than Republicans to approve of Congress. Fewer than half across regions and demographic groups approve of Congress. Approval in March was at 44 percent for adults and 39 percent for likely voters.

Across demographic groups, about half or more approve among women, younger adults, African Americans, Asian Americans, and Latinos. Views are similar across education and income groups, with just fewer than half approving. Approval in March was at 41 percent for adults and 36 percent for likely voters.

Across regions, approval reaches a majority only in the San Francisco Bay Area. Across demographic groups, approval reaches a majority only among African Americans.

This map highlights the five geographic regions for which we present results; these regions account for approximately 90 percent of the state population. Residents of other geographic areas in gray are included in the results reported for all adults, registered voters, and likely voters, but sample sizes for these less-populous areas are not large enough to report separately.

The PPIC Statewide Survey is directed by Mark Baldassare, president and CEO and survey director at the Public Policy Institute of California.

Coauthors of this report include survey analyst Deja Thomas, who was the project manager for this survey; associate survey director and research fellow Dean Bonner; and survey analyst Rachel Lawler.

The Californians and Their Government survey is supported with funding from the Arjay and Frances F. Findings in this report are based on a survey of 1, California adult residents, including 1, interviewed on cell phones and interviewed on landline telephones.

The sample included respondents reached by calling back respondents who had previously completed an interview in PPIC Statewide Surveys in the last six months. Interviews took an average of 19 minutes to complete. Interviewing took place on weekend days and weekday nights from October 14—23, Cell phone interviews were conducted using a computer-generated random sample of cell phone numbers.

Additionally, we utilized a registration-based sample RBS of cell phone numbers for adults who are registered to vote in California. All cell phone numbers with California area codes were eligible for selection.

After a cell phone user was reached, the interviewer verified that this person was age 18 or older, a resident of California, and in a safe place to continue the survey e.

Cell phone respondents were offered a small reimbursement to help defray the cost of the call. Cell phone interviews were conducted with adults who have cell phone service only and with those who have both cell phone and landline service in the household.

Landline interviews were conducted using a computer-generated random sample of telephone numbers that ensured that both listed and unlisted numbers were called. Additionally, we utilized a registration-based sample RBS of landline phone numbers for adults who are registered to vote in California.

All landline telephone exchanges in California were eligible for selection. For both cell phones and landlines, telephone numbers were called as many as eight times. When no contact with an individual was made, calls to a number were limited to six. Also, to increase our ability to interview Asian American adults, we made up to three additional calls to phone numbers estimated by Survey Sampling International as likely to be associated with Asian American individuals.

Accent on Languages, Inc. The survey sample was closely comparable to the ACS figures. To estimate landline and cell phone service in California, Abt Associates used state-level estimates released by the National Center for Health Statistics—which used data from the National Health Interview Survey NHIS and the ACS.

The estimates for California were then compared against landline and cell phone service reported in this survey. We also used voter registration data from the California Secretary of State to compare the party registration of registered voters in our sample to party registration statewide. The sampling error, taking design effects from weighting into consideration, is ±3.

This means that 95 times out of , the results will be within 3. The sampling error for unweighted subgroups is larger: for the 1, registered voters, the sampling error is ±4. For the sampling errors of additional subgroups, please see the table at the end of this section. Sampling error is only one type of error to which surveys are subject. Results may also be affected by factors such as question wording, question order, and survey timing.

We present results for five geographic regions, accounting for approximately 90 percent of the state population. Residents of other geographic areas are included in the results reported for all adults, registered voters, and likely voters, but sample sizes for these less-populous areas are not large enough to report separately.

We also present results for congressional districts currently held by Democrats or Republicans, based on residential zip code and party of the local US House member. We compare the opinions of those who report they are registered Democrats, registered Republicans, and no party preference or decline-to-state or independent voters; the results for those who say they are registered to vote in other parties are not large enough for separate analysis.

We also analyze the responses of likely voters—so designated per their responses to survey questions about voter registration, previous election participation, intentions to vote this year, attention to election news, and current interest in politics. The percentages presented in the report tables and in the questionnaire may not add to due to rounding. Additional details about our methodology can be found at www. pdf and are available upon request through surveys ppic. October 14—23, 1, California adult residents; 1, California likely voters English, Spanish.

Margin of error ±3.

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Web19/10/ · Microsoft’s Activision Blizzard deal is key to the company’s mobile gaming efforts. Microsoft is quietly building a mobile Xbox store that will rely on Activision and King games WebAgreement On Trade-Related Aspects Of Intellectual Property Rights. Members, Desiring to reduce distortions and impediments to international trade, and taking into account the need to promote effective and adequate protection of intellectual property rights, and to ensure that measures and procedures to enforce intellectual property rights do not themselves Webdata:image/png;base64,iVBORw0KGgoAAAANSUhEUgAAAKAAAAB4CAYAAAB1ovlvAAAAAXNSR0IArs4c6QAAArNJREFUeF7t1zFqKlEAhtEbTe8CXJO1YBFtXEd2lE24G+1FBZmH6VIkxSv8QM5UFgM Web20/10/ · That means the impact could spread far beyond the agency’s payday lending rule. "The holding will call into question many other regulations that protect consumers with respect to credit cards, bank accounts, mortgage loans, debt collection, credit reports, and identity theft," tweeted Chris Peterson, a former enforcement attorney at the CFPB who Web12/10/ · Microsoft has responded to a list of concerns regarding its ongoing $68bn attempt to buy Activision Blizzard, as raised by the UK's Competition and Markets Authority (CMA), and come up with an Web26/10/ · Key Findings. California voters have now received their mail ballots, and the November 8 general election has entered its final stage. Amid rising prices and economic uncertainty—as well as deep partisan divisions over social and political issues—Californians are processing a great deal of information to help them choose state constitutional ... read more

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