WebAll the configuration options in make *config have a help text providing details about the option. a complete rebuild is needed. Changing the architecture variant, the binary format or the floating point strategy for example has an impact on the entire system. BR2_GRAPH_OUT to set the filetype of generated graphs, either pdf Web12/10/ · Microsoft pleaded for its deal on the day of the Phase 2 decision last month, but now the gloves are well and truly off. Microsoft describes the CMA’s concerns as “misplaced” and says that WebEnables the use of bit Houdini library for ARM binary translation. ↪--enable-houdini-dlc ⊗: Enables the use of Houdini DLC library for ARM binary translation. This is independent of choosing between the bit vs bit Houdini library. Houdini DLC library will be downloaded and installed at run-time instead of at build time. ↪ Web21/10/ · A footnote in Microsoft's submission to the UK's Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) has let slip the reason behind Call of Duty's absence from the Xbox Game Pass library: Sony and Web19/03/ · Added the -copy_extensions option to the x command for use with -req and -xtoreq. When given with the copy or copyall argument, all extensions in the request are copied to the certificate or vice versa. David von Oheimb, Kirill Stefanenkov [email protected] Added the -copy_extensions option to the req command ... read more
Default large wallpaper to use as path to trusted, non-user-writable JPEG file. Default small wallpaper to use as path to trusted, non-user-writable JPEG file. Defer initialization of the base::FeatureList in an external service process, allowing the process to include its own non-default features.
Test Organization Unit OU user to use for demo mode. Only pass the part before " cros-demo-mode. Force ARC provision to take code path for offline demo mode. App ID to use for highlights app in demo mode. App ID to use for screensaver app in demo mode. Directory from which to fetch the demo mode SWA content instead of downloading from Omaha.
Instead of showing an elevation prompt, proceed as if the user denied the elevation. Do this even if the cleaner is already running elevated, so that it behaves the same in unit tests run from elevated command shells. Prevents permission prompts from appearing by denying instead of showing prompts.
Time in seconds before a machine at OOBE is considered derelict. Time in seconds before a derelict machines starts demo mode. A meta flag. This sets a number of flags which put the browser into deterministic mode where begin frames should be issued over DevToolsProtocol experimental. Specifies the URL at which to communicate with the device management backend to fetch configuration policies and perform other device tasks.
Disables Canvas2D rendering into a scanout buffer for overlay support. Disables client-visible 3D APIs, in particular WebGL and Pepper 3D. Disable gpu-accelerated 2d canvas. Disable hardware acceleration of mjpeg decode for captured frame, where available. Disables hardware acceleration of video decode, where available. Disables hardware acceleration of video encode, where available.
Disable cros action logging. Disables specified comma separated ANGLE features if found. Whether to disable app content verification when testing changes locally on Chromebox for Meetings hardware. Prevents any CPU restrictions being set on ARC[VM]. Only meant to be used by tests as some tests may time out if the ARC container is throttled. Disables android user data wipe on opt out. Disables ARC Opt-in verification process and ARC is enabled by default.
Disables the auto maximize feature on ChromeOS so that a browser window always starts in normal state. This is used by tests that do not want this auto maximizing behavior. Disable auto-reload of error pages. Disables the automatic origin isolation of web platform test domains. We normally origin-isolate them for better test coverage, but tests of opt-in origin isolation need to disable this.
Optionally disable AXMenuList, which makes the internal pop-up menu UI for a select element directly accessible. Disables the BackForwardCache feature. Do not immediately suspend media in background tabs.
Disable several subsystems which run network requests in the background. This is for use when doing network performance testing to avoid noise in the measurements. Disable task throttling of timer tasks from background pages. Disable backgrounding renders for occluded windows. Done for tests to avoid nondeterministic behavior. Disable limits on the number of backing stores. Disable one or more Blink runtime-enabled features. json5, separated by commas. Applied after kEnableBlinkFeatures, and after other flags that change these features.
Disables the crash reporting. Disable CancelAllTouches function for the implementation on cancel single touches. Disable antialiasing on 2d canvas. Disabled defering all image decodes to the image decode service, ignoring DecodingMode preferences specified on PaintImage.
Disable the tracing service graph compuation while writing the trace. Disable default component extensions with background pages - useful for performance tests where these pages may interfere with perf results.
Disables layer-edge anti-aliasing in the compositor. Whether cookies stored as part of user profile are encrypted. Disable crash reporter for headless. It is enabled by default in official builds. Disables use of D3D Disables HTML5 DB support. Set the Dawn features toggles disabled on the creation of Dawn devices.
Disables installation of default apps on first run. This is used during automated testing. Disables the Chrome OS demo. Use this flag to work-around this issue a temporary directory will always be used to create anonymous shared memory files. If this switch is set, the device cannot be remotely disabled by its owner. Disables the dinosaur easter egg on the offline interstitial. Disables DirectComposition surface. Disables using DirectComposition video overlays, even if hardware overlays are supported.
Disable the per-domain blocking for 3D APIs after GPU reset. This switch is intended only for tests. Disables Domain Reliability Monitoring. Disables use of DWM composition for top level windows. Disables use of ES3 backend use ES2 backend instead. Disables use of ES3 backend at a lower level, for testing purposes. This isn't guaranteed to work everywhere, so it's test-only. Disable extensions. Disable extensions except those specified in a comma-separated list.
Disable checking for user opt-in for extensions that want to inject script into file URLs ie, always allow it. Disable the net::URLRequestThrottlerManager functionality for requests originating from extensions. Comma-separated list of feature names to disable. See also kEnableFeatures. Disable FileSystem API.
Disables fine grained time zone detection. Force disables font subpixel positioning. This affects the character glyph sharpness, kerning, hinting and layout. Disables begin frame limiting in both cc scheduler and display scheduler. Disables GAIA services such as enrollment and OAuth session restore. Used by 'fake' telemetry login. Disable user gesture requirement for presentation. Disables GL drawing operations which produce pixel output. With this the GL output will not be correct but tests will run faster.
Disable the GL error log limit. Disables specified comma separated GL Extensions if found. Disable the GLSL translator. Disables GPU hardware acceleration. If software renderer is not in place, then the GPU process won't launch.
Prevent the compositor from using its GPU implementation. Disable workarounds for various GPU driver bugs. Disable proactive early init of GPU process.
Do not force that all compositor resources be backed by GPU memory buffers. Disable GpuMemoryBuffer backed VideoFrames. For tests, to disable the limit on the number of times the GPU process may be restarted. Disable GPU rasterization, i. rasterize on the CPU only. Overrides the kEnableGpuRasterization flag. Disables the GPU process sandbox. Disables the GPU shader on disk cache. Stop the GPU from synchronizing presentation with vblank.
Disable the thread that crashes the GPU process if it stops responding to messages. Suppresses hang monitor dialogs in renderer processes. This may allow slow unload handlers on a page to prevent the tab from closing, but the Task Manager can be used to terminate the offending process in this case.
Disables the shell from beginning in headless mode. Tests will then attempt to use the hardware GPU for rendering. This is only followed when kRunWebTests is set. Disable the HID blocklist. Disables HID-detection OOBE screen. Disable high-resolution timer on Windows. Disable the RenderThread's HistogramCustomizer. Disallow image animations to be reset to the beginning to avoid skipping many frames. Only effective if compositor image animations are enabled.
Disables the in-process stack traces. Disable showing available password credentials in the keyboard accessory view when focused on form fields. Disables the IPC flooding protection.
Disable latest shipping ECMAScript 6 features. Don't kill a child process when it sends a bad IPC message. Apart from testing, it is a bad idea from a security perspective to enable this switch. Disables the Lacros keep alive for testing. Disables LCD text. Disable the Legacy Window which corresponds to the size of the WebContents.
Disable LocalStorage. Force logging to be disabled. Logging is enabled by default in debug builds. Disables logging redirect for testing.
Avoid doing expensive animations upon login. If Lacros is set to the primary web browser, on session login, it is automatically launched. This disables the feature, i. This is for testing purpose, specifically for Tast.
Disables apps on the login screen. By default, they are allowed and can be installed through policy. Force disabling of low-end device mode when set. When using CPU rasterizing disable low resolution tiling. This uses less power, particularly during animations, but more white may be seen during fast scrolling especially on slower devices. Disables requests for an enterprise machine certificate during attestation. Disables sending the next BeginMainFrame before the previous commit activates.
Overrides the kEnableMainFrameBeforeActivation flag. Disables Metal's shader cache, using the GPU sandbox to prevent access to it. Disables mipmap generation in Skia. Disable animations for showing and hiding modal dialogs.
Disables Mojo broker capabilities in the browser during Mojo initialization. Does not change the behavior of the media service. Disables usage of the namespace sandbox. Disallow use of the feature NewBaseUrlInheritanceBehavior. Disables clearing the rendering output of a renderer when it didn't commit new output for a while after a top-frame navigation.
Disables the Web Notification and the Push APIs. Disables the video decoder from drawing to an NV12 textures instead of ARGB. Disables the ChromeVox hint idle detection in OOBE, which can lead to unexpected behavior during tests. Disables network screen skip check which is based on ethernet connection.
Disables debug crash dumps for OOPR. Disables all RuntimeEnabledFeatures that can be enabled via OriginTrials. Disable overscroll edge effects like those found in Android views. Disable partial raster in the renderer. Disabling this switch also disables the use of persistent gpu memory buffers.
Do not emit tags when printing PDFs. Disable Pepper3D. Disable Image Chromium for Pepper 3d. Disables per-user timezone. Disables the Permissions API. Disables compositor-accelerated touch-screen pinch gestures. Disables crash throttling for Portable Native Client. Disables the verification of policy signing keys. It just works on Chrome OS test images and crashes otherwise. Find a better solution to enable policy tast test for Family Link account.
Disables pop-up blocking. Disables new code to run SharedImages for NaCL swapchain. This overrides value of kPPAPISharedImagesSwapChain feature flag.
Disable the creation of compositing layers when it would prevent LCD text. Disables the Presentation API. Disables print preview For testing, and for users who don't like us. Normally when the user attempts to navigate to a page that was the result of a post we prompt to make sure they want to.
This switch may be used to disable that check. This switch is used during automated testing. Disable the pull-to-refresh effect when vertically overscrolling content. Disables throttling of history. Disables remote web font support. SVG font should always work whether this option is specified or not. Disables the RemotePlayback API. Turns off the accessibility in the renderer.
Prevent renderer process backgrounding when set. Whether the ResourceScheduler is disabled. Disables rollback option on reset screen. Disables the new rendering algorithm for webrtc, which is designed to improve the rendering smoothness. Disable running as system compositor. Disable the locking feature of the screen orientation API. This switch disables the ScrollToTextFragment feature. Disable the seccomp filter sandbox seccomp-bpf Linux only. Disable the setuid sandbox Linux only.
Turn off user-defined name hashing in shaders. Disable shared workers. Disables client certificate authentication on the sign-in frame on the Chrome OS sign-in profile. Disables sending signin scoped device id to LSO with refresh token request. Just like kDisableSiteIsolation, but doesn't show the "stability and security will suffer" butter bar warning. Disables site isolation. Note that the opt-in to site-per-process, isolate-origins, etc.
the opt-in takes effect despite potential presence of kDisableSiteIsolation switch. Note that for historic reasons the name of the switch misleadingly mentions "trials", but the switch also disables the default site isolation that ships on desktop since M Do not use runtime-detected high-end CPU optimizations in Skia.
This is useful for forcing a baseline code path for e. web tests. Disable smooth scrolling for testing. For tests, to disable falling back to software compositing if the GPU Process has crashed, and reached the GPU Process crash limit. Disables the use of a 3D software rasterizer. Disables the Web Speech API both speech recognition and synthesis. Disables the speech synthesis part of Web Speech API. Disable stack profiling. Stack profiling may change performance. Disabling stack profiling is beneficial when comparing performance metrics with a build that has it disabled by default.
Disables the check for the system font when specified. Disables adding the test certs in the network process. Disables the 3rd party keyboard omnibox workaround. Disable multithreaded GPU compositing of web content. Disable multithreaded, compositor scrolling of web content.
Used to override the ThrottleDisplayNoneAndVisibilityHiddenCrossOrigin feature from an enterprise policy. Disable timeouts that may cause the browser to die when running slowly. This is useful if running with profiling such as debug malloc. Disables touch event based drag and drop. Disable V8 idle tasks. Disable variations safe mode. Disables throttling for fetching the variations seed on mobile platforms. The seed will be fetched on startup and every time the app enters the foreground, regardless of the time passed in between the fetches.
On Desktop, this switch has no effect the seed is fetched periodically instead. This is for the same feature controlled by kVideoCaptureUseGpuMemoryBuffer. kVideoCaptureUseGpuMemoryBuffer is settled by chromeos overlays. Enabled : Force to enable kVideoCaptureUseGpuMemoryBuffer.
Disabled : Force to disable kVideoCaptureUseGpuMemoryBuffer. Disables volume adjust sound. Disables falling back to GL based hardware rendering if initializing Vulkan fails. This is to allow tests to catch regressions in Vulkan. Instead of using swapchain, bitblt will be used for present render result on screen. Disable wayland input method editor.
Don't enforce the same-origin policy; meant for website testing only. This switch has no effect unless --user-data-dir as defined by the content embedder is also present. Disable all versions of WebGL. Disables WebGL rendering into a scanout buffer for overlay support. Disable WebGL2. Disables encryption of RTP Media for WebRTC. When Chrome embeds Content, it ignores this switch on its stable and beta channels. Disables HW decode acceleration for WebRTC.
Disables HW encode acceleration for WebRTC. Disables custom-drawing the window titlebar on Windows Disable YUV image decoding for those formats and cases where it's supported. Has no effect unless GPU rasterization is enabled. Some tests seem to require the application to close when the last browser window is closed. Thus, we need a switch to force this behavior for ChromeOS Aura, disable "zero window mode".
TODO pkotwicz : Investigate if this bug can be removed. Disable rasterizer that writes directly to GPU memory associated with tiles. Disable the video decoder from drawing directly to a texture. Disable re-use of non-exact resources to fulfill ResourcePool requests.
Intended only for use in layout or pixel tests to reduce noise. Disallow blocking developer mode through enterprise device policy: - Fail enterprise enrollment if enrolling would block dev mode. This is only usable on test builds. Use a specific disk cache location, rather than one derived from the UserDatadir. Forces the maximum disk space to be used by the disk cache, in bytes. Which X11 display to connect to. When switches::kProcessType is switches::kRelauncherProcess, if this switch is also present, the relauncher process will unmount and eject a mounted disk image and move its disk image file to the trash.
The argument's value must be a BSD device name of the form "diskN" or "diskNsM". Autoplay policy that requires a document user activation. Specifies if the DOMAutomationController needs to be bound in the renderer. This binding happens on per-frame basis and hence can potentially be a performance bottleneck. One should only enable it when automating dom based tests.
Sets the number of max pending frames in the GL buffer queue to 1. Draws a semitransparent rect to indicate the bounds of each view. Logs Runtime Call Stats. Requests that a running browser process dump its collected histograms to a given file. The file is overwritten if it exists. innerHTML to stdout. Dump the raw logs to a file with the same base name as the executable. The dumped file is a raw protobuf and has a "pb" extension. Switch to dumpstate binary path. Enables the Accept-CH cache for client hints to be durable past browser restarts.
Tells Chrome to do edge touch filtering. Useful for convertible tablet. Identify that the process is already supposed to be elevated, so that we don't try again. Enable accelerated 2D canvas. Enable the accessibility tab switcher.
Enable inverting of selection handles so that they are not clipped by the viewport boundaries. Enable the aggressive flushing of DOM Storage to minimize data loss. Enables starting the ARC instance upon session start. Enables ARCVM. Enables ARCVM realtime VCPU feature.
If the WebRTC logging private API is active, enables audio debug recordings. Enable auto-reload of error pages. Enable indication that browser is controlled by automation. Enable the use of background thread priorities for background tasks in the ThreadPool even on systems where it is disabled by default, e.
due to concerns about priority inversions. Enables background and upload trace to trace-upload-url. Trigger rules are pass as an argument. Whether or not begin frames should be issued over DevToolsProtocol experimental. TODO asvitkine : Consider removing or renaming this functionality.
Enables the benchmarking extensions. Enable BLE Advertisiing in apps. Enable one or more Blink runtime-enabled features. Applied before kDisableBlinkFeatures, and after other flags that change these features. Enables blink runtime enabled features with status:"test" or status:"experimental", which are enabled when running web tests. Enable serial communication for SPP devices. Enables the multi-level undo system for bookmarks.
Enable native caret browsing, in which a moveable cursor is placed on a web page, allowing a user to select and navigate through non-editable text using just a keyboard. Enables the Cast Receiver. Enables the Chrome Browser Cloud Management integration on Chromium builds. CBCM is always enabled in branded builds. This applies only when the process type is "service".
Enables the Cloud Print Proxy component within the service process. Enables consumer kiosk mode for Chrome OS. Enable crash reporter for headless. Used for turning on Breakpad crash reporting in a debug environment where crash reporting is typically compiled but disabled.
If set, the CrOSActionRecorder will be enabled which will record some user actions on device. Enable package hash check: the. crx file sha hash sum should be equal to the one received from update manifest. Enable validation layers in Dawn backends. Set the Dawn features toggles enabled on the creation of Dawn devices.
Enables Shelf Dimming for ChromeOS. Enables using DirectComposition video overlays, even if hardware overlays aren't supported. Enabled the NTP Discover feed.
Children and youth represent a primary focus of food and beverage marketing initiatives. Food companies spend hundreds of millions of dollars on marketing and advertising, in order to maintain and increase market share. In recent decades there has been a marked increase in spending on food marketing. An Australian Centre for Health Promotion report to New South Wales Department of Health in particularly identified television:. as a factor contributing to the problem of overweight and obesity.
Television viewing promotes sedentary behaviour and has been demonstrated to influence general food consumption patterns and enhance consumption of snack foods. The ADGP found it disturbing that no contrasting healthy eating messages were promoted on television.
Source: Australian Divisions of General Practice . takes place in a largely unregulated environment [and this] should be of genuine societal concern. Further, many case studies revealed carefully worded policies and statements that aim to assure the Australian public that marketing activities engaged in by our food companies are thoughtful and responsible. This is despite all companies engaging in the use of marketing tricks and strategies targeted at influencing the food beliefs, attitudes and preferences of children and teenagers — suggesting that the policies represent more of an interest in being seen to do the right thing rather than a genuine commitment to improve their marketing practices.
Snack bars from this manufacturer are too high in sugar and fat, particularly saturated fat. While the makers of these bars mostly claim they have a fat content of less than ten per cent, a large amount of that fat is saturated and some trans fats may also be included. Sugar is the second ingredient in all of the snack bars and the fibre content is very low.
Source: Australian Cancer Council . There are a number of arguments advanced against banning the advertising of certain products, such as alcohol and junk food. Advertising is, at its core, just the simple delivery of information. Those who oppose it are essentially arguing that this information is too challenging for individuals to process safely; that, if told the wrong thing, they will be unable to resist self-harm.
In other words, according to this view, people of all ages are able to form opinions about the merits of products advertised and make decisions, which they calculate are in their best interests, in relation to what they consume. Advertising in fact:. informs us that new products are available in the marketplace. We may, after having watched an ad, have a different idea of what our next purchase may be.
But that isn't because we have been manipulated by a ruthless marketing department. With reference to children, this type of argument can be manipulated to portray children as responsible consumers.
children as young as five display well-defined preferences about TV programming — they choose to watch some shows instead of others, according to their personality, age, cognitive development and gender.
As in the case of adults, the relevant literature shows that children are not a passive advertisement audience, that they do not fall for everything that comes out of the TV screen, and are instead able to nurture opinions and preferences about the specific commercial they are watching.
More specifically, a study shows that children as young as eleven display a large degree of scepticism about the contents of selected advertising campaigns. Some of the industry arguments which support continuing junk food advertising and public health responses to those arguments can be seen in the table included in this section. A selection of these arguments is discussed in more depth in the section.
One aspect of the responsible marketing and consumption argument is that, unlike tobacco, junk foods can be enjoyed in moderation without causing undue harm to children or adults.
The Cadbury Company maintains, for example, that its products can be enjoyed as treats and as part of a balanced diet. Cadbury states:. We are proud of our brands. They provide fun and enjoyment as treats or refreshment, and are valued for their functional benefits. They can be enjoyed as part of a balanced diet and lifestyle. We provide choice by offering variety and through innovation.
We encourage responsible consumption, as this is central to consumers continuing to enjoy our brands. At the same time, as the Cancer Council of New South Wales points out, Cadbury spent millions of dollars creating a new Internet cartoon series featuring Freddo the Frog.
Cadbury claims this represents responsible marketing, as no chocolate is featured. Source: CFAC . In addition, the responsible consumption argument posits that manufacturers of junk foods have adopted conscientious attitudes to the marketing of food and beverages to children. The Australian Food and Grocery Council AFGC claims it has developed a responsible marketing initiative. In addition, seven companies are signatories to the Australian Quick Service Restaurant Industry Initiative for Responsible Advertising and Marketing to Children under 14 years which is modelled on the AFGC initiative.
Over the past 7 years we have responded to community concerns around advertising to children and;. Both initiatives are monitored by the Advertising Standards Bureau.
This is defined in the code as a main meal and a beverage. According to one American advertising executive, not only does the advertising industry take its social responsibility to children seriously, but in America at least, advertising is essential in maintaining programming for children:.
Or mothers. Or the guy who is sleeping with Siamese triplets! According to Patrick Basham and John Luik, authors of Diet nation: exposing the obesity crusade :. This is not the case.
UK food and drink ad spending has been falling in real terms since and is now roughly at levels, even while rates of overweight and obesity have been rising. Consider, too, that in food ads constituted 34 per cent of total television advertising, whereas in they made up only 18 per cent.
found 55 per cent of people thought advertising was to blame for obesity while only 44 per cent blamed poor parenting. In a similar vein, a United States Federal Trade Commission FTC report which concluded that children see fewer television advertisements promoting food products than they did 28 years ago, noted that the incidence of childhood obesity more than doubled in the same period.
Consequently, there cannot be a direct relationship between it and television advertising. In response to the FTC conclusions specifically, Susan Linn, a Harvard University psychologist, made the point that the volume of television advertisements could not be assessed in isolation.
Newer forms of advertising, such as product placement and Internet advertising, had substituted for down turns in television promotion. In a recent working paper for the Productivity Commission, Jacqueline Crowle and Erin Turner also agree that research suggests that the link between television viewing and childhood obesity is tenuous. Doggett argues that the evidence in support of junk food advertising bans is suspect; it is mainly based on a single randomised controlled trial undertaken over 30 years ago.
One group was exposed to junk food advertising and it was found at the conclusion of the monitoring period that this group made a lesser number of healthy food choices than the other groups involved in the study. It hardly needs to be pointed out that a single, short-term study, undertaken a generation ago, on a small group of children on the other side of the world, from a different social and cultural background, in a pre-Internet media environment, is hardly a robust evidence base for major public policy changes in Australia today.
The communications and media regulator, ACMA, appears sympathetic to these claims. The CFAC countered that the CTS and other industry codes monitored by ACMA do not work. ACMA praised the initiatives taken by industry following the release of its initial report as noted earlier in this paper , and committed to monitoring the outcomes from the initiatives to see if they could address community concerns without imposing additional government regulation.
An associated regulatory issue is that of so called fat taxes. A number of studies have concluded that it is generally currently cheaper for people to purchase energy dense highly processed foods than healthier options. For those that accept this is the case, the idea of imposing fat taxes appears to have merit as an effective means to reduce the consumption of unhealthy foods without resorting to bans.
A study for Diabetes Australia by Access Economics considered the economic viability of imposing fat taxes on certain foods to reduce the incidence of obesity in general and reached the following conclusions:. In addition, Access Economics comments in relation to a variation on the fat tax theme, that there is no evidence introducing tax concessions for healthy foods may be any more desirable than taxing junk foods.
The current Australian exemption for certain fresh foods from GST can be cited to illustrate this point; there is no proof this concessional treatment of some foods has influenced consumer choice radically.
Crowle and Turner refer to a number of studies that also argue responses to food taxes are limited. So no statistically significant reduction in overall energy intake was achieved. Crowle and Turner make a similar point to the Access Economics study—fat taxes affect all people, not simply the obese:. Food is a necessity good, and its consumption only results in obesity in some situations. The efficiency losses of reducing food consumption by low-risk individuals could outweigh the efficiency gains of reducing food consumption of obese individuals.
Also, obesity may arise from consuming large amounts of food, rather than consuming particular types of food deemed unhealthy and therefore taxable.
Similarly, the unintended consequences outcome may apply in some instances. For example, taxing an underlying characteristic of foods, such as high fat, could mean nuts, which have nutritional benefits, are taxed as junk foods. Anne Marie Thow and her colleagues in an article for the World Health Organization make the point that because food is essential for life, taxing it is not as simple as taxing products like tobacco.
Thow et al argue that while taxes have worked relatively well in lowering tobacco consumption, because food involves complicated choices, such as the one noted in the paragraph above, taxes may in fact not be effective options in controlling obesity.
In opposition to these views, the recently published five-year ACE-Prevention study concluded that a ten per cent tax on junk foods would be a significant factor in optimal health prevention. The ACE study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of preventive health interventions, to note that a large impact on population health could be achieved with a limited number of interventions such as the ten per cent tax and restricting the amount of salt in three basic food items bread, cereals and margarine.
As early as advertising to children was a multi-million dollar industry in the United States. In Australia, the Coalition on Food Advertising to Children, has claimed:. companies spend hundreds of millions of dollars on marketing and advertising, in order to maintain and increase market share.
It is possible, however, to speculate from evidence presented in the studies noted in the previous section of this paper, as well as information on market spending by food companies, that the proportion was significant. ACMA found that in children aged zero to 14 years spent an average of minutes per day watching free-to-air television.
The majority of this time was spent watching commercial channels. During the week the peak viewing hours for children were between eight and nine in the morning and seven and eight in the evening. On weekends, the child audience amounted to a higher proportion of the total viewing audience available for commercial television. The zero to 14 years audience accounted for 30 per cent or more of the total viewing audience in the 7 to 10 am timeslots and remained at 15 per cent or over until 1 pm.
In the weekend evening timeslot of 7 to 8 pm, the zero to 14 years audience represented Analysis of the most watched programs from to June revealed that the program genres which appealed most to children aged zero to 14 years were reality television, movies and comedy programs. In , for example, 74 per cent of children aged eight to 17 years spent an average one hour and 17 minutes daily on Internet activities.
These activities included online communications, such as messaging, chatting, using social websites and e mailing. Other activities involved playing games against other players online. Almost half the young people in the ACMA study reported watching television shows, movies, cartoons or video clips on the Internet. Three years later, another ACMA paper noted that further developments such as media-enabled smart phones have provided young people with more opportunity to access media content.
The Commonwealth has the power to make laws with respect to electronic communications under section 51 v of the Australian Constitution. While the Broadcasting Services Act BSA allows the Commonwealth to impose prescriptive conditions on broadcasting licences, its control over print media is largely limited to more generic controls in relation to commercial activities under sections 51 i and 51 xx of the Constitution.
Under section of the BSA, ACMA is required to determine standards that are to be observed by commercial broadcasting licensees in relation to programs broadcast for children. It is a condition of commercial broadcasting licences that licensees comply with program standards. The principal reference to food and beverage advertising in the CTS requires that advertising of these products does not contain misleading or incorrect information about the nutritional value of products.
However, clearly other aspects of the standards are relevant; for example, the prohibition on the use of popular characters to promote products. Prohibitions on the repetition of advertisements are also pertinent the cartoon shown below attempts to illustrate how children can be influenced by repetition and depictions of what is normal behaviour. Complaints relating to the CTS can be made directly to ACMA.
Source: Cancer Council . The Australian Association of National Advertisers has in place a code of ethics which deals with advertising to children.
The code states that advertisements for food and beverages should not encourage unhealthy eating or drinking habits or inactive lifestyles. Advertisements should also not contain misleading or incorrect information about the nutritional value of products. Other broadcasting codes, such as the Commercial Television Industry Code of Practice, include provisions in relation to programming for, and advertising to children.
These codes in theory prevent misleading advertising, and in defending existing advertising patterns, manufacturers usually point to the existence and effectiveness of the codes. Source: FreeTV . In November , Australian Health Ministers concluded that overweight and obesity were significant public health problems that required an Australia-wide response.
The Ministers agreed to establish a National Obesity Taskforce which would be charged with developing a national obesity action plan. The Taskforce produced the Healthy Weight report in that by participating in the AASC program, children have become more physically active in their leisure time, [and] they have grown to love structured physical activity and want to continue their involvement. While he was Minister for Health, the current Opposition Leader, Tony Abbott, stressed that in his opinion, junk food can be enjoyed occasionally without harmful effects for either children or adults.
He added that those who did not like the content of any advertising on television should simply switch it off. Abbott iterated this view in an address to the Queensland Obesity Summit in I think people need to retain substantial authority over how they live their lives.
I think people need to be allowed to make mistakes. But I do think it is important that everyone has a sense of responsibility for what he or she does and for the consequences of our actions. Liberal Mal Washer, for example, believed a ban for some types of junk food was a good idea. As there appears to have been no further public comment from Abbott on the subject, there is no indication that his views have altered since when he concluded that there is no evidence a ban on junk food advertising would reduce obesity rates significantly.
In April , the new Rudd Government established a National Preventative Health Taskforce NPHT. The Taskforce set about developing strategies to tackle health challenges caused by tobacco, alcohol and obesity and to develop a National Preventative Health Strategy.
At the same time as the NPHT began its work, the House of Representatives Standing Committee on Health and Ageing initiated an inquiry into obesity in the Australian population.
These were:. Recommendation The Committee recommends that the Minister for Health and Ageing commission research into the effect of the advertising of food products with limited nutritional value on the eating behaviour of children and other vulnerable groups. The Committee recommends that the Minister for Health and Ageing adopt a phased approach regarding regulations on the reformulation of food products.
Industry should be encouraged to make changes through self-regulation but if industry fails to make concrete changes within a reasonable timeframe the Federal Government should consider regulations.
On 1 September , the NPHT released its strategy for a healthier Australia by To date, it appears that voluntary self regulation has been the principle means employed by the Government in dealing with junk food advertising to children. See the relevant excerpt from the strategy below:. National Preventative Health Taskforce NPHT strategy. Source: NPHT . At the time of the release of the NHPT report, some commentators implied that the marketing industry had been told by the Government it had only a few months to prove that self regulation worked if it was to avoid tighter government regulations.
A week after the release of the NHPT report, the Government agency, ACMA, argued against the Taskforce recommendations. ACMA Chairman Chris Chapman claimed a ban on junk food advertising was not justified. Chapman maintained this was because there was only a modest link between it and obesity and limited research was available on the benefits of banning junk food advertising.
Revised CTS, which came into force 1 January , imposed additional requirements regarding advertising. What we need are actions, funds and policies on the ground and in communities around Australia that provide real, tangible health benefits, not more health bureaucrats sitting in Canberra trying to tell people how to live their lives.
The Australian National Preventive Health Agency Bill was re-introduced following the election and passed by the House of Representatives on 27 October with the support of three Independents and Greens member, Adam Brandt. It remains to be seen to what extent the agency will be committed to regulating the junk food industry. More importantly, it also remains to be seen to what extent the Government will embrace any reforms the agency may suggest.
In October , actress Kerry Armstrong featured in an advertisement which Coca Cola claimed shattered myths about the harm the soft drink could do to consumers and balanced debate about the product.
Coca Cola also had the same amount of acidity as many other foods and drinks and with good dental hygiene would not cause harm to teeth. The ACCC then forced Coca Cola to retract its claims. Despite claims that the industry was capable of responsibly self regulating to ensure claims such as those made by Coca Cola were not promoted, the Advertising Standards Council had previously dismissed complaints about the myth busting advertisement.
Consumer groups considered the incident illustrated that the advertising industry was out of touch with community standards and unable to self-regulate effectively.
As a study for WHO points out, the fundamental policy choices in dealing with issues such as junk food advertising are statutory regulation, self-regulation or a mixture of the two—co-regulation.
Self-regulation aims to reduce the amount of deceptive, misleading and exploitative advertising to children, but it does not legally regulate or prohibit that marketing. Statutory regulation can include a number of options:. The following examples illustrate how these options have been employed in a number of countries:.
Broadcasting legislation passed in in Ireland required the Broadcasting Commission of Ireland to introduce a code that deals specifically with advertising either directly or indirectly targeted at children.
While post-build scripts Section 9. Post-image scripts can for example be used to automatically extract your root filesystem tarball in a location exported by your NFS server, or to create a special firmware image that bundles your root filesystem and kernel image, or any other custom action required for your project.
Just like post-build scripts, post-image scripts are run with the main Buildroot tree as current working directory. The path to the images output directory is passed as the first argument to each script. The post-image scripts will be executed as the user that executes Buildroot, which should normally not be the root user. Therefore, any action requiring root permissions in one of these scripts will require special handling usage of fakeroot or sudo , which is left to the script developer.
It is sometimes useful to apply extra patches to packages - on top of those provided in Buildroot. This might be used to support custom features in a project, for example, or when working on a new architecture.
For information about how patches are applied for a package, see Section It can be used to specify a patch directory for any package in buildroot. It should also be used in place of the custom patch directory options that are available for packages such as U-Boot and Barebox. By doing this, it will allow a user to manage their patches from one top-level directory. In general, any new package should be added directly in the package directory and submitted to the Buildroot upstream project.
How to add packages to Buildroot in general is explained in full detail in Chapter 18, Adding new packages to Buildroot and will not be repeated here.
However, your project may need some proprietary packages that cannot be upstreamed. This section will explain how you can keep such project-specific packages in a project-specific directory. If you are using the br2-external tree feature see Section 9. However, Buildroot will not be aware of the packages in this location, unless we perform some additional steps. As explained in Chapter 18, Adding new packages to Buildroot , a package in Buildroot basically consists of two files: a.
mk file describing how to build the package and a Config. in file describing the configuration options for this package. Buildroot will automatically include the. If we want Buildroot to include. mk file in a first-level subdirectory that includes these additional. mk files. For the Config. in that includes the Config. in files of all your packages. An exhaustive list has to be provided since wildcards are not supported in the source command of kconfig.
For example:. in , preferably in a company-specific menu to make merges with future Buildroot versions easier. If using a br2-external tree, refer to Section 9.
Earlier in this chapter, the different methods for making project-specific customizations have been described. This section will now summarize all this by providing step-by-step instructions to storing your project-specific customizations. Clearly, the steps that are not relevant to your project can be skipped. config as far as they are relevant :.
This chapter discusses how various things are integrated at system level. Buildroot is highly configurable, almost everything discussed here can be changed or overridden by rootfs overlay or custom skeleton configuration.
Systemd requires a DBus daemon. At least one of them must be chosen. If both are included in the configuration, dbus-broker will be used as system bus, but the traditional dbus-daemon is still installed as well and can be used as session bus. Also its tools e. dbus-send can be used systemd itself has busctl as an alternative.
In addition, the traditional dbus package is the only one that provides libdbus , which is used by many packages as dbus integration library. Both in the dbus and in the dbus-broker case, the daemon runs as user dbus. The DBus configuration files are also identical for both. To make sure that only one of the two daemons is started as system bus, the systemd activation files of the dbus package dbus. socket and the dbus. service symlink in multi-user. wants are removed when dbus-broker is selected.
SELinux is a Linux kernel security module enforcing access control policies. In addition to the traditional file permissions and access control lists, SELinux allows to write rules for users or processes to access specific functions of resources files, sockets…. To have proper support for SELinux in a Buildroot generated system, the following configuration options must be enabled:.
The SELinux refpolicy contains modules that can be enabled or disabled when being built. Each module provide a number of SELinux rules. In Buildroot the non-base modules are disabled by default and several ways to enable such modules are provided:. Buildroot also allows to completely override the refpolicy. This allows to provide a full custom policy designed specifically for a given system.
When going this way, all of the above mechanisms are disabled: no extra SElinux module is added to the policy, and all the available modules within the custom policy are enabled and built into the final binary policy. The custom policy must be a fork of the official refpolicy. In order to fully override the refpolicy the following configuration variables have to be set:.
If the boot process seems to hang after the following messages messages not necessarily exactly similar, depending on the list of packages selected :. In order to have the system start a shell on your serial console, you have to go into the Buildroot configuration, in System configuration , modify Run a getty login prompt after boot and set the appropriate port and baud rate in the getty options submenu.
It has been decided that support for the native compiler on the target would be stopped from the Buildroot If you need a compiler on your target anyway, then Buildroot is not suitable for your purpose.
In such case, you need a real distribution and you should opt for something like:. Since there is no compiler available on the target see Section Because Buildroot mostly targets small or very small target hardware with limited resource onboard CPU, ram, mass-storage , it does not make sense to waste space with the documentation data. If you need documentation data on your target anyway, then Buildroot is not suitable for your purpose, and you should look for a real distribution see: Section To know more about the dependencies of a package, search for the package symbol in the config menu see Section 8.
Then, you may have to recursively enable several options which correspond to the unmet dependencies to finally be able to select the package.
If the package is not visible due to some unmet toolchain options, then you should certainly run a full rebuild see Section 8. There are plenty of reasons to not use the target directory a chroot one, among these:. For these reasons, commands run through chroot, using the target directory as the new root, will most likely fail. One feature that is often discussed on the Buildroot list is the general topic of "package management".
To summarize, the idea would be to add some tracking of which Buildroot package installs what files, with the goals of:. In general, most people think it is easy to do: just track which package installed what and remove it when the package is unselected. However, it is much more complicated than that:. For all these reasons, the conclusion is that adding tracking of installed files to remove them when the package is unselected, or to generate a repository of binary packages, is something that is very hard to achieve reliably and will add a lot of complexity.
Since Buildroot often involves doing full rebuilds of the entire system that can be quite long, we provide below a number of tips to help reduce the build time:.
All of the end products of Buildroot toolchain, root filesystem, kernel, bootloaders contain open source software, released under various licenses. Using open source software gives you the freedom to build rich embedded systems, choosing from a wide range of packages, but also imposes some obligations that you must know and honour.
Some licenses require you to publish the license text in the documentation of your product. Others require you to redistribute the source code of the software to those that receive your product. The exact requirements of each license are documented in each package, and it is your responsibility or that of your legal office to comply with those requirements. To make this easier for you, Buildroot can collect for you some material you will probably need.
To produce this material, after you have configured Buildroot with make menuconfig , make xconfig or make gconfig , run:. There you will find:. Please note that the aim of the legal-info feature of Buildroot is to produce all the material that is somehow relevant for legal compliance with the package licenses.
Buildroot does not try to produce the exact material that you must somehow make public. Certainly, more material is produced than is needed for a strict legal compliance. For example, it produces the source code for packages released under BSD-like licenses, that you are not required to redistribute in source form. Moreover, due to technical limitations, Buildroot does not produce some material that you will or may need, such as the toolchain source code for some of the external toolchains and the Buildroot source code itself.
When you run make legal-info , Buildroot produces warnings in the README file to inform you of relevant material that could not be saved. Finally, keep in mind that the output of make legal-info is based on declarative statements in each of the packages recipes. The Buildroot developers try to do their best to keep those declarative statements as accurate as possible, to the best of their knowledge.
However, it is very well possible that those declarative statements are not all fully accurate nor exhaustive. You or your legal department have to check the output of make legal-info before using it as your own compliance delivery. See the NO WARRANTY clauses clauses 11 and 12 in the COPYING file at the root of the Buildroot distribution.
Buildroot itself is an open source software, released under the GNU General Public License, version 2 or at your option any later version, with the exception of the package patches detailed below. However, being a build system, it is not normally part of the end product: if you develop the root filesystem, kernel, bootloader or toolchain for a device, the code of Buildroot is only present on the development machine, not in the device storage.
Nevertheless, the general view of the Buildroot developers is that you should release the Buildroot source code along with the source code of other packages when releasing a product that contains GPL-licensed software.
This is because the GNU GPL defines the " complete source code " for an executable work as " all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable ". Buildroot is part of the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable , and as such it is considered part of the material that must be redistributed.
Keep in mind that this is only the Buildroot developers' opinion, and you should consult your legal department or lawyer in case of any doubt. Buildroot also bundles patch files, which are applied to the sources of the various packages. Those patches are not covered by the license of Buildroot. Instead, they are covered by the license of the software to which the patches are applied.
When said software is available under multiple licenses, the Buildroot patches are only provided under the publicly accessible licenses. See Chapter 19, Patching a package for the technical details. To achieve NFS-boot, enable tar root filesystem in the Filesystem images menu. To build a live CD image, enable the iso image option in the Filesystem images menu. Note that this option is only available on the x86 and x architectures, and if you are building your kernel with Buildroot.
You can build a live CD image with either IsoLinux, Grub or Grub 2 as a bootloader, but only Isolinux supports making this image usable both as a live CD and live USB through the Build hybrid image option. As mentioned above, Buildroot is basically a set of Makefiles that download, configure, and compile software with the correct options.
It also includes patches for various software packages - mainly the ones involved in the cross-compilation toolchain gcc , binutils and uClibc. There is basically one Makefile per software package, and they are named with the.
mk extension. Makefiles are split into many different parts. Overall, these coding style rules are here to help you to add new files in Buildroot or refactor existing ones. If you slightly modify some existing file, the important thing is to keep the consistency of the whole file, so you can:.
in files contain entries for almost anything configurable in Buildroot. The Config. in files are the input for the configuration tool used in Buildroot, which is the regular Kconfig. Header: The file starts with a header. It contains the module name, preferably in lowercase, enclosed between separators made of 80 hashes. A blank line is mandatory after the header:.
Note that commands inside a define block should always start with a tab, so make recognizes them as commands. cfg files contain the output image layout that genimage utility uses to create final. img file. The genimage. cfg files are the input for the genimage tool used in Buildroot to generate the final image file i. The documentation uses the asciidoc format. Buildroot contains basic configurations for several publicly available hardware boards, so that users of such a board can easily build a system that is known to work.
You are welcome to add support for other boards to Buildroot too. To do so, you need to create a normal Buildroot configuration that builds a basic system for the hardware: internal toolchain, kernel, bootloader, filesystem and a simple BusyBox-only userspace. No specific package should be selected: the configuration should be as minimal as possible, and should only build a working basic BusyBox system for the target platform. You can of course use more complicated configurations for your internal projects, but the Buildroot project will only integrate basic board configurations.
This is because package selections are highly application-specific. Once you have a known working configuration, run make savedefconfig. This will generate a minimal defconfig file at the root of the Buildroot source tree.
If the configuration is a bit more complicated, it is nice to manually reformat it and separate it into sections, with a comment before each section. Typical sections are Architecture , Toolchain options typically just linux headers version , Firmware , Bootloader , Kernel , and Filesystem. Always use fixed versions or commit hashes for the different components, not the "latest" version.
It is recommended to use as much as possible upstream versions of the Linux kernel and bootloaders, and to use as much as possible default kernel and bootloader configurations. If they are incorrect for your board, or no default exists, we encourage you to send fixes to the corresponding upstream projects.
However, in the mean time, you may want to store kernel or bootloader configuration or patches specific to your target platform. You can then store your patches and configurations in these directories, and reference them from the main Buildroot configuration. Refer to Chapter 9, Project-specific customization for more details.
Before submitting patches for new boards it is recommended to test it by building it using latest gitlab-CI docker container. This section covers how new packages userspace libraries or applications can be integrated into Buildroot. It also shows how existing packages are integrated, which is needed for fixing issues or tuning their configuration.
When you add a new package, be sure to test it in various conditions see Section First of all, create a directory under the package directory for your software, for example libfoo. Some packages have been grouped by topic in a sub-directory: x11r7 , qt5 and gstreamer. If your package fits in one of these categories, then create your package directory in these. New subdirectories are discouraged, however.
For the package to be displayed in the configuration tool, you need to create a Config file in your package directory. There are two types: Config. in and Config. For packages used on the target, create a file named Config. This file will contain the option descriptions related to our libfoo software that will be used and displayed in the configuration tool. It should basically contain:. The bool line, help line and other metadata information about the configuration option must be indented with one tab.
The help text itself should be indented with one tab and two spaces, lines should be wrapped to fit 72 columns, where tab counts for 8, so 62 characters in the text itself. The help text must mention the upstream URL of the project after an empty line. You can look at examples in other packages. The syntax of the Config. in file is the same as the one for the kernel Kconfig file. in or in a category subdirectory if you decided to put your package in one of the existing categories.
The files included there are sorted alphabetically per category and are NOT supposed to contain anything but the bare name of the package. The host package should be explicitly selectable by the user from the configuration menu. In this case, create a Config. host file for that host package:. The same coding style and options as for the Config.
in file are valid. The files included there are sorted alphabetically and are NOT supposed to contain anything but the bare name of the package. The host package will then be available from the Host utilities menu.
in file of your package must also ensure that dependencies are enabled. Typically, Buildroot uses the following rules:. The current problem with the kconfig language is that these two dependency semantics are not internally linked. An example illustrates both the usage of select and depends on. Overall, for package library dependencies, select should be preferred. Note that such dependencies will ensure that the dependency option is also enabled, but not necessarily built before your package.
To do so, the dependency also needs to be expressed in the. mk file of the package. Further formatting details: see the coding style. Some packages can only be built on certain target architectures, or if an MMU is available in the processor.
These dependencies have to be expressed with the appropriate depends on statements in the Config. in file. Additionally, for dependencies on toolchain options, a comment should be displayed when the option is not enabled, so that the user knows why the package is not available.
Dependencies on target architecture or MMU support should not be made visible in a comment: since it is unlikely that the user can freely choose another target, it makes little sense to show these dependencies explicitly. The comment should only be visible if the config option itself would be visible when the toolchain option dependencies are met. This means that all other dependencies of the package including dependencies on target architecture and MMU support have to be repeated on the comment definition.
To keep it clear, the depends on statement for these non-toolchain option should be kept separate from the depends on statement for the toolchain options. If there is a dependency on a config option in that same file typically the main package it is preferable to have a global if … endif construct rather than repeating the depends on statement on the comment and other config options. The rest of this section enumerates the different target and toolchain options, the corresponding config symbols to depend on, and the text to use in the comment.
They are available in variants operating on 1 byte, 2 bytes, 4 bytes and 8 bytes. Since different architectures support atomic operations on different sizes, one dependency symbol is available for each size:. Some packages need a Linux kernel to be built by buildroot.
These are typically kernel modules or firmware. A comment should be added in the Config. in file to express this dependency, similar to dependencies on toolchain options. The general format is:. Create a file named libfoo.
It describes how the package should be downloaded, configured, built, installed, etc. Depending on the package type, the. mk file must be written in a different way, using different infrastructures:.
Further formatting details: see the writing rules. When possible, you must add a third file, named libfoo. hash , that contains the hashes of the downloaded files for the libfoo package. The only reason for not adding a.
hash file is when hash checking is not possible due to how the package is downloaded. When a package has a version selection choice, then the hash file may be stored in a subdirectory named after the version, e. This is especially important if the different versions have different licensing terms, but they are stored in the same file.
The hashes stored in that file are used to validate the integrity of the downloaded files and of the license files. The format of this file is one line for each file for which to check the hash, each line with the following three fields separated by two spaces:.
Lines starting with a sign are considered comments, and ignored. Empty lines are ignored. There can be more than one hash for a single file, each on its own line. In this case, all hashes must match. Ideally, the hashes stored in this file should match the hashes published by upstream, e.
on their website, in the e-mail announcement… If upstream provides more than one type of hash e. sha1 and sha , then it is best to add all those hashes in the. hash file. If upstream does not provide any hash, or only provides an md5 hash, then compute at least one strong hash yourself preferably sha , but not md5 , and mention this in a comment line above the hashes.
The hashes for license files are used to detect a license change when a package version is bumped. The hashes are checked during the make legal-info target run. The example below defines a sha1 and a sha published by upstream for the main libfoo bz2 tarball, an md5 from upstream and a locally-computed sha hashes for a binary blob, a sha for a downloaded patch, and an archive with no hash:. If the. hash file is present, and it contains one or more hashes for a downloaded file, the hash es computed by Buildroot after download must match the hash es stored in the.
If one or more hashes do not match, Buildroot considers this an error, deletes the downloaded file, and aborts. hash file is present, but it does not contain a hash for a downloaded file, Buildroot considers this an error and aborts. However, the downloaded file is left in the download directory since this typically indicates that the.
hash file is wrong but the downloaded file is probably OK. Hashes are not checked for other version control systems such as Subversion, CVS, etc. because Buildroot currently does not generate reproducible tarballs when source code is fetched from such version control systems. Hashes should only be added in.
hash files for files that are guaranteed to be stable. For example, patches auto-generated by Github are not guaranteed to be stable, and therefore their hashes can change over time. Such patches should not be downloaded, and instead be added locally to the package folder. Packages that provide a system daemon usually need to be started somehow at boot. Buildroot comes with support for several init systems, some are considered tier one see Section 6. An annotated example of this style is shown below.
There is no specific coding style for systemd unit files, but if a package comes with its own unit file, that is preferred over a buildroot specific one, if it is compatible with buildroot.
The name of the start script is composed of the SNN and the daemon name. The NN is the start order number which needs to be carefully chosen. For example, a program that requires networking to be up should not start before S40network.
The scripts are started in alphabetical order, so S01syslogd starts before S01watchdogd , and S02sysctl start thereafter. Note: programs that support reloading their configuration in some fashion SIGHUP should provide a reload function similar to stop. The start-stop-daemon supports -K -s HUP for this.
By packages with specific build systems we mean all the packages whose build system is not one of the standard ones, such as autotools or CMake. This typically includes packages whose build system is based on hand-written Makefiles or shell scripts.
This prefix is always the uppercased version of the package name see below to understand where the package name is defined. On line 12, we specify that this package wants to install something to the staging space. This is often needed for libraries, since they must install header files and other development files in the staging space. So some sed magic is done to these scripts to make them give correct flags. Example Config script: divine package.
Config script: imagemagick package:. On line 14, we specify the list of dependencies this package relies on. These dependencies are listed in terms of lower-case package names, which can be packages for the target without the host- prefix or packages for the host with the host- prefix.
Buildroot will ensure that all these packages are built and installed before the current package starts its configuration.
The rest of the Makefile, lines On lines On line Finally, on line 43, we call the generic-package function, which generates, according to the variables defined previously, all the Makefile code necessary to make your package working. There are two variants of the generic target. The generic-package macro is used for packages to be cross-compiled for the target. The host-generic-package macro is used for host packages, natively compiled for the host.
It is possible to call both of them in a single. mk file: once to create the rules to generate a target package and once to create the rules to generate a host package:. This might be useful if the compilation of the target package requires some tools to be installed on the host.
If the package name is libfoo , then the name of the package for the target is also libfoo , while the name of the package for the host is host-libfoo. mk file, after all variable definitions. The call to host-generic-package must be after the call to generic-package , if any. For the target package, the generic-package uses the variables defined by the.
This is done for variables that are likely to have the same value for both the target and host packages. See below for details. The list of variables that can be set in a. mk file to give metadata information is assuming the package name is libfoo :. It can also be a revision number or a tag for packages that are fetched directly from their version control system.
This name will appear in the manifest file produced by make legal-info. If the license appears in the SPDX License List , use the SPDX short identifier to make the manifest file uniform. Otherwise, describe the license in a precise and concise way, avoiding ambiguous names such as BSD which actually name a family of licenses. This variable is optional. If it is not defined, unknown will appear in the license field of the manifest file for this package.
The expected format for this variable must comply with the following rules:. The available variables are:. If any of those variables is defined, then the generic package infrastructure assumes the package provides valid CPE information.
Now, the variables that define what should be performed at the different steps of the build process. Finally, you can also use hooks. mk file for an autotools-based package, with an example :. On line 8 and 9, we declare the name of the tarball xz-ed tarball recommended and the location of the tarball on the Web.
Buildroot will automatically download the tarball from this location. On line 10, we tell Buildroot to install the package to the staging directory. By default, packages are not installed to the staging directory, since usually, only libraries need to be installed in the staging directory: their development files are needed to compile other libraries or applications depending on them. Also by default, when staging installation is enabled, packages are installed in this location using the make install command.
On line 11, we tell Buildroot to not install the package to the target directory. This directory contains what will become the root filesystem running on the target. For purely static libraries, it is not necessary to install them in the target directory because they will not be used at runtime. By default, target installation is enabled; setting this variable to NO is almost never needed. Also by default, packages are installed in this location using the make install command. On line 12, we tell Buildroot to pass a custom configure option, that will be passed to the.
On line 13, we declare our dependencies, so that they are built before the build process of our package starts. Finally, on line line 15, we invoke the autotools-package macro that generates all the Makefile rules that actually allows the package to be built.
The main macro of the autotools package infrastructure is autotools-package. It is similar to the generic-package macro. The ability to have target and host packages is also available, with the host-autotools-package macro. Just like the generic infrastructure, the autotools infrastructure works by defining a number of variables before calling the autotools-package macro.
A few additional variables, specific to the autotools infrastructure, can also be defined. Many of them are only useful in very specific cases, typical packages will therefore only use a few of them.
With the autotools infrastructure, all the steps required to build and install the packages are already defined, and they generally work well for most autotools-based packages. However, when required, it is still possible to customize what is done in any particular step:. mk file for a CMake-based package, with an example :.
On line 12, we tell Buildroot to pass custom options to CMake when it is configuring the package. Finally, on line line 15, we invoke the cmake-package macro that generates all the Makefile rules that actually allows the package to be built. The main macro of the CMake package infrastructure is cmake-package.
The ability to have target and host packages is also available, with the host-cmake-package macro. Just like the generic infrastructure, the CMake infrastructure works by defining a number of variables before calling the cmake-package macro.
A few additional variables, specific to the CMake infrastructure, can also be defined. By default, empty. mk file unless you want to override them:.
With the CMake infrastructure, all the steps required to build and install the packages are already defined, and they generally work well for most CMake-based packages. This infrastructure applies to Python packages that use the standard Python setuptools or pep mechanisms as their build system, generally recognizable by the usage of a setup. py script or pyproject. toml file. mk file for a Python package, with an example :. On line 10 and 11, we give licensing details about the package its license on line 10, and the file containing the license text on line On line 12, we tell Buildroot to pass custom options to the Python setup.
py script when it is configuring the package. On line 14, we declare the specific Python build system being used.
Dr Rhonda Jolly Social Policy Section 12 January The author is grateful for the constructive comments and suggestions made on a previous version of this paper by Ms Kaye Mehta, Senior Lecturer, Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Flinders University. Thanks also to my colleagues, Dr Matthew Thomas and Paula Pyburne, for their valuable contributions.
The World Health Organization WHO has labelled childhood obesity as one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21 st century. In , according to WHO, there are an estimated 42 million children under five years old who are overweight, and this figure is increasing at an alarming rate.
Children who are overweight or obese are likely to grow into obese adults who risk developing a number of chronic non-communicable ailments, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. One policy intervention which can help to achieve populations with well adjusted weight levels involves introducing and maintaining strategies that encourage healthy eating habits.
But the extensive array of convenience and pre-packaged foods high in fat, sugar and salt so called junk foods which are increasingly available across the world, often promoted in large or multiple serving sizes, has made eating healthily a challenge—for individuals personally, and for policymakers indirectly. This paper considers some of the available evidence relating to the influence of the various forms of advertising in general, their influence on children and on consumption habits.
It considers also arguments which maintain that junk food can be part of a balanced diet and that the food, non-alcoholic drink and advertising industries can be entrusted to market these types of products responsibly without the intervention of government, or with minimal government intervention.
In particular, the paper notes recent Australian Government approaches to dealing with this issue and the stance taken in favour of advertising regulation by the Australian Greens. The paper concludes that overall, the Australian response has been cautious in relation to calls for more action to deal with obesity and its concomitant health problems.
Arguments that the junk food industry voluntarily and responsibly limits the exposure of children to excessively manipulative promotion of its products appear to have been successful in maintaining a largely self- regulatory environment in Australia.
This is despite the findings of national and international studies that indicate more action may need to be taken, and the imposition of various bans and taxes in other countries. There is a significant body of academic work which discusses the ways in which advertising influences behaviour. Essentially, this work can be divided into two types of critique. The first group of studies examines advertising at the micro level by considering the ways in which it seeks to persuade or manipulate consumers.
The second group of studies takes a societal view in examining ways in which advertising, and the mass media overall, may help to concentrate economic and cultural power in the hands of a few corporations and individuals. These meanings in turn, shape consciousness and behaviour subtly by sanctioning some forms of thought and behaviour while de-legitimising others. Advertisements in fact place less emphasis on communicating specific product information and more on communicating the social and symbolic uses of products.
Effectively, this means that in a consumer-oriented society, people define themselves as consumers and they are persuaded that they gain a fundamental gratification from consumption. So advertisers generate systems of meaning, prestige and identity by associating their products with certain life-styles, symbolic values and pleasures. What this amounts to is a situation where advertising works to affect purchasing in a variety of subtle ways, as is illustrated in the box below.
Subtle effect of advertising. The subtle influence of advertising works in a variety of ways, such as those shown below:. Another perspective on advertising is advanced by renowned media critic, Ben Bagdikian. Bagdikian argues that program content is changed and shaped based on the demographics of audiences so that it becomes less important than the type of person being targeted by advertising during programs.
The television programs Big Brother and Survivor can be cited as examples. In briefly tracing the history of advertising in magazines Bagdikian suggests that this practice has been commonplace for some time:.
The influence of advertising on magazines reached a point where editors began selecting articles not only on the basis of their expected interest for readers but for their influence on advertisements. Serious articles were not always the best support for ads. An article that put the reader in an analytical frame of mind did not encourage the reader to take seriously an ad that depended on fantasy or promoted a trivial product. The next step, seen often in mid-twentieth century magazines, was commissioning articles solely to attract readers who were good prospects to buy products advertised in the magazine.
After that came the magazine phenomenon of the s — creating magazines for an identifiable special audience and selling them to particular advertisers. There are a number of other means which advertisers use to persuade and influence purchasing choice. These include advertorials or infomercials, which are advertisements presented as legitimate news or articles. Some further examples are noted in Box 2 below. Advertising strategies. Back to top.
It was unusual for children to be targeted by advertisers until television became commonplace in homes during the twentieth century. In recent times, as more people have added subscription television to their entertainment fare, more opportunities have been created to market products to children on channels, such as Nickelodeon and the Cartoon Network, which deliver children-specific programming.
The Internet has provided even more opportunity through websites which feature content aimed at children. Advergames are advertiser-sponsored video games which embed brand messages in colourful, fun, fast-paced adventures which are created by companies for the explicit purpose of promoting their brands.
More disposable income is now available to many families, and consequently, parents appear more willing to buy goods for their children than in the past. This may be the result of a combination of factors, including smaller family size, people postponing having children until later in life and the fact that there are more dual income families.
Whatever the cause, the result is that children and young people are now an important demographic for advertisers. This is because they not only influence their parents' buying decisions, but they are also the adult consumers of the future. In marketing to children, advertisers have encouraged the phenomenon of what has been labelled pester power.
This has been defined as the constant demand for parents to purchase items, be they clothes, toys, gadgets or various other goods as the illustration below shows. Importance nagging represents a more sophisticated means by which children claim that something is necessary for their educational or sporting progress, or for their general well being. According to the American Centre for Science in the Public Interest, pestering strategies undermine parental authority.
Source: Center for Science in the Public Interest . Additionally, advertisers attempt to address children as consumers in their own right and so develop strategies to build brand awareness and purchasing habits. One advertiser claims this is not as difficult as it would seem:. This is in spite of the fact that, as the American Psychological Association points out, children do not display the two characteristics needed for mature assessment of advertising:.
Children must acquire two key information-processing skills in order to achieve mature comprehension of advertising messages. First, they must be able to discriminate at a perceptual level commercial from non commercial content; and second, they must be able to attribute persuasive intent to advertising and to apply a degree of skepticism [sic] to their interpretation of advertising messages consistent with that knowledge.
Each of these capabilities develops over time as a function of cognitive growth and intellectual development. There are various pieces of advice given to parents about ways in which they can counter advertising strategies.
These include e ducating children to understand that the main goal of advertising is to make them buy things—often things they do not need and did not know they wanted until they have seen advertisements—and encouraging children to challenge advertisers' claims about their products. A number of studies have concluded that advertising to children has produced disturbing results. One study revealed that by the age of two, children may have beliefs about specific brands.
T wo to six year olds can recognise familiar brand names, packaging, logos and characters and associate them with products, especially if the brands use salient features such as bright colours, pictures and cartoon characters. By middle childhood, most children can name multiple brands of child-oriented products.
Even among very young children, this awareness and recognition has been found to translate to nagging for specific product names and brands. An increasing number of overseas findings agree that television commercials for sweets, snacks and fast food are the mainstays of advertising which targets children.
None of this time includes advertisements for fruit or vegetables. Many advertisements associate physical activity with the products and highlight the health benefits to be gained from their consumption.
In other words:. There is evidence that advertising unhealthy foods to children influences not only which brands [children] choose, but the overall balance of their diet, encouraging them to eat energy-dense salty, sugary or fatty foods in place of those which are more nutritious and wholesome.
Results indicated that children were significantly more likely to prefer the taste of low-nutrient, high-energy foods when a cartoon character appeared on the package. While this was the case with healthier foods it was not as conclusive. Obesity needs company?
Source: Prospect . Considerable research has been conducted in Australia which complements that undertaken overseas. The Coalition on Food Advertising to Children concluded in Children and youth represent a primary focus of food and beverage marketing initiatives.
Food companies spend hundreds of millions of dollars on marketing and advertising, in order to maintain and increase market share. In recent decades there has been a marked increase in spending on food marketing. An Australian Centre for Health Promotion report to New South Wales Department of Health in particularly identified television:.
as a factor contributing to the problem of overweight and obesity. Television viewing promotes sedentary behaviour and has been demonstrated to influence general food consumption patterns and enhance consumption of snack foods. The ADGP found it disturbing that no contrasting healthy eating messages were promoted on television. Source: Australian Divisions of General Practice . takes place in a largely unregulated environment [and this] should be of genuine societal concern.
Further, many case studies revealed carefully worded policies and statements that aim to assure the Australian public that marketing activities engaged in by our food companies are thoughtful and responsible.
This is despite all companies engaging in the use of marketing tricks and strategies targeted at influencing the food beliefs, attitudes and preferences of children and teenagers — suggesting that the policies represent more of an interest in being seen to do the right thing rather than a genuine commitment to improve their marketing practices.
Snack bars from this manufacturer are too high in sugar and fat, particularly saturated fat. While the makers of these bars mostly claim they have a fat content of less than ten per cent, a large amount of that fat is saturated and some trans fats may also be included. Sugar is the second ingredient in all of the snack bars and the fibre content is very low. Source: Australian Cancer Council . There are a number of arguments advanced against banning the advertising of certain products, such as alcohol and junk food.
Advertising is, at its core, just the simple delivery of information. Those who oppose it are essentially arguing that this information is too challenging for individuals to process safely; that, if told the wrong thing, they will be unable to resist self-harm. In other words, according to this view, people of all ages are able to form opinions about the merits of products advertised and make decisions, which they calculate are in their best interests, in relation to what they consume.
Advertising in fact:. informs us that new products are available in the marketplace. We may, after having watched an ad, have a different idea of what our next purchase may be.
But that isn't because we have been manipulated by a ruthless marketing department.
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